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were gentlewomen, and the remainder esquires, gentlemen, and yeomen. Amongst them 15 were condemned for denying the queen's spiritual supremacy, 126 for the exercise of their priestly functions, and the rest for being reconciled to the Catholic faith, or for being aiding and abetting to priests. Besides these, I find a particular account, together with most of the names, of go priests or Catholic lay persons who died in prison, in the same reign, and of 105 others who were sent into perpetual banishment. (1) I say nothing of many more who were whipped, fined, (2) or stripped of their property, to the utter ruin of their families. In one night 50 Catholic gentleinen, in the county of Lancaster, were suddenly seized upon and committed to prison, on account of their non-attendance at church. About the same time, I find, an equal number of Yorkshire gentlemen lying prisoners in York castle, on the same account, most of whom perished there. The latter were every week, for a twelve month, dragged by main force to hear the established service performed at the castle chapel. (3)

An

man of a very turbulent character, publifhed certain falfe and uncharitable libels, which seem to be the source whence Camden draws his account, and it is equally true that, when he came to die, he publicly retracted and asked pardon for them, as I have before mentioned in my history, vol. i. p. 395. [Dr. S. has, in his second edition, itruck out the citation in question from Camden, because as he says, “ it bears marks of improbability." P. 169.)

(1) See Dodd's Hift. Challoner's Mem.

(2) The fine for recusancy alone was 2ol. per month, besides pecuniary mulets on other accounts without number.

(3) See a circumftantial account of their behaviour. Me. moirs, &c. vol. i, p. 429, &c.

An account was published, by a cotemporary writer, of 1200 Catholics who had been in some fort or other victims of this persecution, previously to the year 1588, that is to say, during the period of its greatest lenity. (1) I have heretofore given the number of the Puritans or other Diffenters who were put to death for their religious opinions, during this period, and I shall have occasion to mention below the continuation of the persecution against Catholics, and the number of persons who suffered in it, during the three subsequent reigns of the house of Stuart, and the interregnum of the Commonwealth. Upon a comparative view of the persecutions that have been carried on in this country, since the Reformation, on both sides, it will appear that many more Catholics than Protestants have suffered capital punishment on the score of religion ; and if we take into consideration the whole effect of the dif. ferent penal laws, in their numberless branches, we shall find, that the sufferings of the former have been greater than those of the latter beyond all eftimation.

But you have another excuse for refusing to compromise with me in the article of persecution, namely, a comparison, which you choose to institute, between the torments endured by the respective sufferers on both sides ; for you say, “ if in consequence of her (Elizabeth's) severe laws, many unhappy persons (Catholics) were put to death, it was not to a death of torture by fire....Mary put to death by fire, for there I 2

is

(1) See Concertatio Ecc. Cath. by Dr. Bridgewater,

is a difference even in the manner of death, 277 persons.” (1) The fame word fire, emphatically marked, occurs a third time in the same page. It is a difficult inatter, even for professional persons, to pronounce on the degree of animal pain that occurs in different kinds of death; (2) for my part, I apprehend that in all capital punishments this depends more upon the executioner than upon the judge. But since, Sir, you oblige mę to enter upon this disgusțing subject, I must tell you, with respect to the greater, part of the Catholic victims, that the fentence of the law was striatly and literally exe. cuted upon them. After being hanged up, they I fancy,

were (!). P. 74.

(2) It was a usual thing in these executions to tie bags of gunpowder round the sufferers, which certainly must have greatly abridged their torments; Hooper had a pound of gunpowder under his legs, and another under each aim. See Fox. Aas, &c. - Hume, in mentioning the circumstance of Látimer and Ridley having gunpowder about them at their burning, aferibes it rather to “ the humanity of the executioners than to that of the judges.” If he had looked into Fox he would have seen, that this was owing to the mercy of neither the former nor the later, but to that of the brother-in-law of Ridley, who applied the said combustible. It is evident, however, that this merciful expedient could not have been in general used without the consent of those men in power, who directed the executions. -Having mentioned one of Hume's errors respecting this reign, I cannot help pointing out another, however foreign to the melancholy fubject now in hand, both as it affects the History of Winchester, and the veracity of this favourite author. He says, “ A few days after (Philip's arrival at Southampton) they (queen Mary and he) were married at Westminster, and having made a pompous entry into London, she carried him to Windior." How roundly here does he relate a series of falsehoods ! The truth is, they were married at Winchester, July 25, from which city they removed to Baling, and thence to Windsor, where they arrived August 11. Their next step was to Richmond, whence they proceeded to Southwark August 17, and thence, the next day, to London. See Stow, &c.

were cut down alive, dismembered, ripped up, and their bowels literally burnt before their faces, after which they were beheaded and quartered. The time employed in this butchery was very confiderable, and, in one instance, lasted above half an hour. (1) I must add; that a great number of these fufferers, as well as other Catholics, who did tiot endure capital punishinent, were racked in the most severe and wanton manner, in order to extort proofs against themfelves or their brethren. (2)

13 (1) See in particular the account of Hugh Green, Mem. of Mift. v. ii, p. 224, and that of Edmund Gennings, vol. 1, p. 274. (After all, if dying by, fire be the most cruel of all executions, it argues a defect in our laws which appoints this to be the punish, ment of petty treason, whilst the Catholic sufferers underwent i fiat annexed to high treason. It is still more important to sea marktħat if the Catholics had recourse to the sword, it was in order to preserve an ancient establishment whilft the Protestants made use of it in order to introduce a new one. The former admitted a standing authority to guide men in questions of religion. The grand principle of the latter is that every man has a right to judge for himself in these concerns. And yet they put their neighbours to death for exercising this privilege. Will any perfon, after this, put the question which of the two parties was less excusable?7

(2) See an account of the torturing Campian, Brian, Cottam, Sherwood, &c. Ibid. Pref. et paffim. This particular is confirmed by Camden, in his Annals, who speaking of the famous Campian says, that “ he was not so racked but that he was still capable of signing his name.” It appears, from the account of one of these sufferers, that the following tortures were in use against the Catholics in the Tower : i. The common rack, in which the limbs were stretched by levers. 2. The Scavenger's Daughter, so called, being a hoop, in which the body was bent until the head and feet met together. 3. The chamber, called Little. Ease, being a hole so small that a person could neither stand, fit, or lie straight in it. 4. The Iron Gauntlets. Diar, Rer. Gest. in Turri. Lond. In some instances needles were thrust under the prisoners nails. See Pref. above. [With what cruelty the Catholics were racked we may gather from the following passage in a letter from John Nichols to Cardinal Allen,

by

I fancy, Sir, that by this time you are as tired, of the subject of persecution as I am. Will you

then at length enter into the proposed compromise, of not in future reproaching me with the fires of queen Mary, upon my consenting not to upbraid you with the knives and gibbets of her sister Elizabeth? If you do not agree to this proposal, I think I can answer for it, that the reader will condemn you for folly and bigotry in refusing it.

I have the honor, &c.

by way of extenuating the guilt of his apoftacy and perfidy in accusing his Catholic brethren : “ Non bona res est corpus isto cruciatu longius fieri per duos fere pedes quam natura concefsit." Sir Owen Hopton, lieutenant of the Tower, was commonly the immediate instrument in these cruelties ; but sometimes Elmer, Bishop of London, directed them. On one occasion he caused a young lady of good birth to be cruelly scourged, when he could not prevail upon her to attend the public service. See De Schism. Ang. pp. 319, 328.]

POSTSCRIPT TO LETTER IV.

[Amongst the different heads of the present controversy there is none of greater importance to the English Catholics and to the nation, nor is there any on which Dr. S. and myself are more fully committed, than this of persecution. If it be proved that Catholics are bound by their principles to persecute and extirpate persons of a different religion from themselves, it is absurd in them to look up to a Proteitant legislature for any extension of their civil privileges; they may rather expect to see their former

chains

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