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virginica, L.-Kent (Higham). "Given the name this heading. But I should like to make a few
about Lee, because they say it blossoms all the remarks.
Trinity. Rov. 0. H. Fielding: no doubt sog. No ono bas yet told us what the O.N. völlr
gested by the three petals of the flower."

really is ; 80 it is worth while to say that it is F. O. BIRKBECK TERRY. merely the Norse equivalent of E. wold, as exSEDILIA (S. ix. 607).-A similar question plained in my Dictionary.' under that title. respecting the existence of sedilia in foreign O.N. ö often makes English e”; for a reader might

I entirely dissent from the statement that "the churches appears in ‘N. & Q.,' 1** S. xii. 344, to which there are instances given in reply at pp. 392, 16

makes" is here equivalent to 479, with which may be compared a communica- all pare English, and exist independently of the

originates." The words eld, elbow, and ern aro tion in vol. iii. p. 142. It is apparently the case O.N. ö. We might as well say that the O.N. ö that their occurrence is more rare in foreign than in English churches, but that they are not entirely

"makes” the German e in Ellen-bogen. absent from the latter. ED. MARSHALL.

In fact, there is a very good reason why the

ON. ö is totally independent of E... It is simply GRIMSBY CASTLE, BERKSHIRE (866 S. ix. 207). this ; the O.N. ö is the u-umlaut of a; the E. e is -For Grimsby read Grimsbury; the so-called the i-umlaut of a. Hence they are quite different castle" is a very important earthwork, of com- sounds, and can only be confounded by such as do paratively late construction, standing in Hampstead. not rightly appreciate what umlaut signifies. Norris parish, near the remains of a Roman villa.

To the question, “Is not Somerset itself a Norse

The The district was marshy, and there are indications word?" I at once reply,. Certainly not. of a Celtic crannog or pile dwelling adjoining. English Somerset has nothing to do with Norse, Grim is supposed to be a form of Odin, thus in but is merely the modern form of A.-S. Sumordicating the presence of the Scandinavian element. sætan (plural), with long a. This word does not There is a Grimsditch, near East Ilaley, between The A.-S. equivalent of O.N. sumarsetr bappens

summer abode," but " summer-settlers." the two ridgeways, called variously Icknield Street and Ickleton Street, also in Berkshire ; and we

to be sumerselde.

WALTER W. SKEAT. find a Grimsdyke in Oxfordshire, which severed Icknield Street between Mongewell and Nuffield.

EARLIEST CIRCULATING LIBRARY (81b S. ix. Grimsbury also names two hamlets near Banbury. earliest lending library, I may inform him (my

447). Assuming that the querist means the Allthis indicates hard fighting; but we know nothing authority being, an article by the late James certain of the combatants beyond what is reported Clepban, a local antiquary of some note) that of King Alfred at Ashdown, A.D. 871, also in Berk. shire. But, greatest of all English Grims is the

"the first lending library established in England 80-called Grim's dyke, & survival of Antonine's

was that of the Bishop of Darbam, Richard de Roman Wall in the Anglian lowlands of Scotland. Bury." Bishop Bury was born in 1281, elevated

to the sea of Durham in 1333, and died at Bishop A. HALL.

Auckland in 1345, A library was founded by WEIGHING THE EARTH (gld S. ix. 224, 314, 393, him at Oxford. 470; . 37).-If the astronomer Baily dwelt in "The students of the hall in which the books were 37, Tavistock Place, I gather that this (which was lodged had the free use of them, under a provident pulled down this year) must be the house wherein arrangement,' drawn up by the donor, who enacted, the earth was weighed. My notion that Britton besides, that books might be lent to strangers,' being

students of the university not belonging to the hall, the the antiquary's house was the one, arose from some mention by him, when I saw him therein in 1844. keepers taking as security a sum exceeding the value of

the loan The site of his house will some day form a band

W. E. ADAMS. some and useful street from Crescent Place to Newcastle-on-Tyne. Tavistock Square. Bat only the south side thereof is yet built, and it forms now a front garden to the N. & Q. (468 S. ix. 442 ; 566 $. i. 69, 154 ; ix.

Your correspondent will find, on referring to three houses called Russell, Bedford, and Tavistock houses. It is curious that both this and 37, Tavi-426), that a circulating library was in existence stock Place (lately called The Grove) have been at Dunfermline in_1711, Edinburgh 1725,


London 1740. demolished, and each of them was detached in its

EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. own garden, which can be said of no otber in the

71, Brecknock Road, thousands within a radius three or four miles, See the account of Samuel Fancourt in the except the three mansions in Regent's Park. 'Dict. Nut. Biog.,' and consult 'N. & Q.,' 76 S. E. L. G. vii. 247, 374 ; xii. 66.

W. C. B. THE SUFFIX " WELL" in PLACE-NAMES (gib S. A propos of C.'s query, though it is not an answer ix. 345, 451; 2, 17).— I can neither understand to it, I should like to state that I possess a set of nor subscribe to some of the statements made under the original issue of Dr. Johnson's Lives of the




Poets, London, 1781, which is in very good con- TRANSLATION (gab 8. ix. 484).--I trust, for the ditions on the iy-leaf of the first volume is a list sake of Longfellow's Latioity, that the epitaph of names of persons among whom it was circalated quoted does not contain "tetegit," but tetigit. from some lending library or book-club. Could May I be permitted to give a rendering as terse as any reader of N. & Q.' identify the locality from the words seem to demand ?the dames? They are as follow, together with the

A maid-of-all-works dates of forwarding :

Lies below;
Johnson's Lives of ye Poets, Vol. 1. 3 weeks.

Whate'er she bandled
I. Humpbrys

Smash did go.
Novi 6 to ...... Mrs Brett..........
26 to

F. O. BIRKBECK TERRY. ..P. Parke8........ 14 to Jan' 1782...... Miss Wbitehouse...... 4 to

THE BROOM DANCE (86b S. 3. 26).-It is surE. Elwell............. 25 to

prising that MR. THORPE should have lived thirty W" Brett.......... 15 Feb? to years in Devonshire without hearing of this dance, John Wright............ 7 March to which is one of the best known and most commonly Wm Turton......

27 to Jo Jesson...............

practised in the West. The present writer remem

April 17 to
Jos. Wrigbt.............. May 10th to

bers seeing it at a farmhouse ashen faggot burning Examined.

on a Christmas Eve over fifty years ago, and toThe same namos recur in the same order in each day it may be seen in the kitchen of almost any of the other three volumes, Mrs. Brett receiving public-house. I could produce twenty men who her copies of vols. ii., iii., and iv. from I. Humphrys can and would dance it for a small consideration on 16 Feb., 6 June, and 24 June, 1782, the others - particularly, if liquid. Like the monkey's


“ receiving the books in due course. It would add bornpipe." it is not seen except in “kitchen comconsiderably to the interest and value of the set of pany. Your correspondent fairly describes the volumes could the town in which they were first action, and a good deal of dexterity and agility circulated as new books be identified.

is needed to throw the legs alternately over the W. R. TATE stick while

keeping the head of the broom on the Walpole Vicarage, Halesworth.

ground. Hero, in Somerset, it is called “The [Many replies bave been received.]

barsb stick-dance," or “ To dance the burgh".

the brush being the housemaid's long-handled CHILD"=A GIRL, AND NOT A Boy (8th S. ix. broom. 326 ; x. 13).--In Wright's "Provincial Glossary

Perhaps Mrs. Lily Grove can give some infor“ child” is given as an equivalent of “ girl.” Here mation as to the history and antiquity of the it is marked as a Devonshire word. It will be dance ; but I have a notion that the Keel Row, remembered that Shakspeare, in the Winter's though a nautical air, is scarcely Semitic, nor of Tale,' III. iii., uses the word similarly, where he high antiquity. The music at the first of the two makes the old shepherd say, "A boy or a child, I performances I have witnessed was on that very wonder ?"


expressive instrument an iron teatray, while the Shakespeare, as is well known, made liberal use dancer sang and bummed a lively accompaniment ; of West-country phrases. On this topic, see the old but I only remember one line, not quite suitable shepherd's query, when he discovers an infant cast for your pages. Generally the words were of no away on the seashore, “A boy or a child, I meaning, not the same, though similar in character wonder ?" ("Winter's Tale,' III. iii, 71).

to those I give below, which were written down

NEMO. for me by the very first old man I spoke to on the Temple.

subject :

The Brush-steck Dance. I wrote “popularly employed,” but the printer The Tather lettle Tune, makes me say " properly employed,” to which I The Tutber lettle Tune. by no means assent. CAA8. Jas. FÈRET.


can you dance 49, Edith Road, West Kensington.

the Tuther lettle Tune.

The Luptey Tumpey, Tuther lettle Tune, SAUNDERS=CROMPTON (8th S. 3. 27).-I seek

The Lettle Tune. further to trace connexion between Dorothy Cromp- I find the air now used hero is generally the ton and the Lord Forfar of circa 1667. Jane, • Keel Row'when fiddle or accordion are forthdaughter of Sir Walter Aston, of Tioksall, who coming; a teatray is not quite suitable for it. died 1689, married William Orompton, Esq., of By the way, that tune is known by the name of Stone Park, Staffs. Dorothy is described in the "The monkey cocks his tail." I cannot account Asbborne Church monument as “ neptis” to for the absence of the women ; it must surely have Walter, Lord Forfar. How was she related to been accidental, or the performance too common William Crompton ? The Sir Walter above named to rouse their interest. was grandfather to the first Baron Forfar.

No doubt there are many survivals of the kind C. S. L. referred to by MR THORPE, more or less gross,

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bat except, perhaps, in the cant phrase "jumping of Orkney is not descended from Patrick Stewart, over the broom" for an irregular cohabitation, there the family name being originally Hamilton, now seems little evidence of antiquity in this particular Hamilton-Fitzmaurice. The title was granted to dance.

Lord George Hamilton, fifth son of William The name Bål is, I submit, scarcely Phoenician, Douglas, Duke of Hamilton, 3 Jan., 1696. Neither but is most certainly the Devonshire rendering are the Stewarts of Appin, who claim descent of our West Country ball, a knoll. The name through Dougal, a natural son of John Stewart, “ Cloatsham-Ball " is a familiar instance, and Lord of Lorn, a descendant of Sir John Stewart, is a household word at this time of the year of Bonkyl, second son of Alexander, High among those who attend the opening meet of the Steward of Scotland circa 1256–83. The Stewarts Devon and Somerset staghounds, called the of Appin were located on the east side of "Dankery Derby."

Loch Linnhe, in Argyleshire. The Stewarts Your correspondent can hardly be serious in of Appin,' by John H. J. Stewart (1880), would connecting Easter-brook, Maddicott, Balbatohet, probably give some information respecting any of Amory, and Symons with Babylonia, though I the clan who (as the query states) served under have been confidently informed that our modern King James at the battle of the Boyne. sheriff is Arabic shereef. Coincidence of sound

JOAN RADCLIFFE. is often curious, as well as cariously misleading.

Is it not Robert Stuart, Earl of Orkney, that F. T. ELWORTHY.

MORO DE MORO refers to ? He was a natural I suspect that “the broom dance” is somewhat son of King James V. His son Patrick (Pate ?), similar to its brother "the cudgel dance," common Earl of Orkney, was executed for a mistake in in some districts ofthenorth of Ireland, and should say Latin grammar. Robert Stuart, proud of his that this dance is so immoral in the different move- birth, but no scholar, had styled himself “ Dominus ments that females having any feelings of refine- Robertus Stuartus filius Jacobi Quinti Rex ment or decency would naturally remain out of Scotorum,” an error which helped to bring his sight during its performance, i..., stay indoors. son to the scaffold. His fate was not altogether

WM. JACKSON PIGOTT. undeserved, however. Few, even among the Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down,

Stuarts, surpassed him in crime. There is a short SAXON WHEEL CROSS (8th S. ix. 447).—This

account of this gentleman in my small book on is probably a consecration oross.

It is of the form Orkney, Past and Present," now nearly out of

print. I shall be happy to give MORO DE MORO which Mr. J. H. Middleton, in vol. xlviii. of the a copy if he will favour me with his address and Archeologia, p. 458, mentions as follows: “The would care to see it. The principal anthority on forms of the crosses are numerous, but the com- all matters connected with the Orkney Islands is monest of all is type A.”. There is an example in Torfæus, in whose work, 'Historia Roram Orcaplate xxxiii. fig. 1, from Bishop's Cleeve, Gloucester- densiam,'

he might find further information about shire, with various similar ones in pl. xxxiii., this character if necessary:

The Stuarts were wiv,


probably & Norman family, being descended SIR GEORGE NARES (8tb S. x. 7).-See the in the direct male line from Alan, one of the · Dictionary of National Biography,' vol. xl. 91, 92. companions of William the Conqueror.


8, Royal Avenue, S.W. “ ONLY" (gld S. viii. 84, 273; ix, 213, 332).At the last reference MR. THOMAS BAYNE states “ FEARED"=FRIGHTENBD (86b S. ix. 385).that the use of this word as a preposition is not · Feared” in the sense mentioned by MR. BAYNE ancommon. What author so uses the word ? I is, like many other Scottish colloquialisms, a word shall be glad to have a quotation or quotations of common use in England. Among the working F. . BIRKBECK TERRY. classes of Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, for instance,

& savage ball” and PATE STUART, EARL OF ORKNEY (8th S. X. strangely feared when it thunders heavily," 8).-I think MORO DE MORO must be in error while a ghost " fears them almost to death." respecting the above-named earl. Patrick Stewart, In a few years, it may be, the poor will have second Earl of Orkney (beheaded 1614), was_tho acquired the art of speaking schoolmaster's Eng. son of Robert Stewart, Abbot of Holyrood, Earl | lish, but at present Elizabethan phraseology still of Orkney, natural son of King James V. The comes easily to their lips. family (in the male line) became extinct on the By-the-by, is it too late to prevent the exclusion death of Robert Stewart, grandson of Sir James of the good old words." yon” and “yonder” from of Tullas, brother of Earl Patrick. For pedigree ordinary use among educated people ? The lan-, 360° Peerage of Scotland' by Douglas, and the guage will be the poorer if they are allowed to 'Extinct Peerages' by Burke. The present Earl become obsolete. To the villager “this" means

people are " feared of

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for such usages.

the thing bere, "that" signifies the thing there, Quarterly of six : 1 and 6, Sablo, a lion rampant and "yon" the thing at a still greater distance. arg. ; 2, Sable, two spear-heado (1) arg: ; 3, Argenty But those who have been tutored and governessed a chevron between three fleurs-de-lis sable ; 4, into so-called correctness of diction know that Argent, three chevrons gules ; 6, Argent, a lion “yon” is vulgar, and avoid it accordingly. When rampant sable. The date of the pioture is 1560, and wherefore did it fall into discredit in cultivated or the third year of Elizabeth's reign. society?

G. W. It was not my intention to do more than single “Feared” and “a'fearded” are common enough munication as a beautiful example of the good taste

out the skull portrait mentioned in my last comwords in Devonshire, and may be heard every manifested by Lotto, the Italian, in dealing with day in the villages bere, a very long way from this unpleasant accessory: A hundred years later Sootland,

HARRY HEMS. Fair Park, Exeter.

than his time it was utilized by certain Dutoh and

Flemish masters as an emblem not merely of death, This use of the word is not novel edition of Dr. Johnson's Dictionary: mivel mundo but as a token of the medical profession. In this

gives the manner it occurs in a portrait of a water-doctor following as the second meaning of the verb fear, by Gerard Dow, in the possession of Hoywood “ to fright, to make afraid," and quotes as an Lonsdale, Esq., and perhaps similarly in the balfauthority Dr. John Donne, the poetical Dean of length portrait (sixteenth century) of a man in St. Paul's.

E. WALFORD. cap and vest of black velvet, with a mulberryVentnor.

coloured gown, in the National Gallery, whose "Feard," " feared "=afraid, frightened, is no right band rests upon a skull, while in his left he doubt a Scottish colloquialiem, but it is, I think, holds pansies. If I do not err, Gerard Dow has common throughout the greater part of England placed a skull in the foreground of his own por

trait in the Pitti collection. Another German It occurs in my Mapley and Corringham Glossary,' with the following example : "Silly bairn, he's portrait (sixteenth century), half-length, of a man, feard to go thrif th' check yard i thodaayleet." in the National Gallery, likewise exhibits this I hear the word very frequently—80 often, indeed, emblem of death.*. His left hand rests apon a that it makes no impression on my memory.

skull. Van Dyck has employed it peculiarly in EDWARD PEACOCK,

two distinct portraits of Rachel de Rouvigny, Dunstan House, Kirton-in-Lindsey.

Countess of Southampton, belonging respectively

to Lords Cowper and Spencer. In both instances Cf.

the subject rests her right foot upon a skull, the. All were full fearod that there were fun Their leaders may they barely ban.

meaning being evident. An Italian example may Lawrence Minot's • War Poems,' 1352.

be recalled as having been exhibited in the New I quote from Prof. Henry Morley's 'Shorter

Gallery a year ago, being a half-length portrait of English Poems' ("Lib. of Eog. Lit.").

& clean-sbaven young man, by B. Licinio, in front A. O. W.

of whom, though untouched by him, lies å skall.

It is manifest from the foregoing that the skull, JOHN EVERARD (8th S. s. 9).-See the 'Dic- skeleton, or even entire corpse, was made use of tionary of National Biograpby,' vol. xviii. 84, 85. by painters as an accessory or property in one or

W. C. B. other of three secular capacities–Damely, as an SKULL IN PORTRAIT (gh S. ix. 109, 357, 412). emblem of the danger of death incurred or over-I regret my inability to add directly to the come by the person portrayed ; secondly (perhaps elucidation of the truly remarkable picture in the in the Dulwich picture), as a gloomy reminder of Dulwich collection referred to by MRS. LEGA- the precarious nature of even sanctified tios ("The WEEKES. In view, however, of the two Leominster word of God hathe knit us twayne, and death shall woolpacks in it and certain of the quarterings in us divide again"); lastly, it was used as the the shield on the lady's side of the picture, which symbol of a profession. The seventeenth century are stated to be those of Lloyd and Williams, I yields by far the greater number of instances of

ST. CLAIR BADDELEY. should he tempted to infer the probability of the the three practices. initials W. I. and I. I. representing the name of Jones. Some real light, however, may well be does not notice that for several centuries it has

GRAY OR GREY (8th S. X. 49).-MR. ATTWELL thrown upon this view of the work by commend- been the custom of the English feudal families ing the gentleman's arms to students of heraldry. of this name to write it Grey, while the Scottish They are these : Quarterly, 1 and 4, Gales, a fess wrote it invariably Gray. It was different as late gules engrailed between tbree boars' heads coupod or; 2 and 3, three lions rampant argent ; over all as the fourteenth century. Sir Thomas Gray, of a crescent of difference. The gentleman carries,

* I recollect in the Munich and Dresden galleries two stuck in his unworn gloves, an iris ; the lady wears or three examples of entire ekeletons peeping through one in her bosom. The arms of the latter are green curtains in portraits.

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Hetoan, in Northumberland, though the founder tion's sake. The pronunciation of Rhuddlan is, of the noble families of Grey in that county, always I believe, Rhythlan (th soft). This is how I have wrote his name with a, and so did his son Sir beard it in the neighbourhood, and it accords with Thomas, author of that fascinating and too little the rules given in Rowland's Welsh Grammar.' known work the 'Scalacronica, written in the

C. C. B. language they both spoka, viz., Norman Frencb.

Corious TENURE OF LANDS (81) $. ix. 489).The elder Gray was taken prisoner at Bannock; The subject to which the query of C. refers bas burn, and the younger wrote the Scalacronica') been several times in N. & Q. (1• S. iv. 406 ; when a prisoner of war in Edinburgh Castle about 2nd S. xi. 246 ; 3rd S. vii. 354, 388 ; 56 S. i. 506), 1355. In their case it seems not to have been a bat no explanation of the custom has been given, territorial name, as they never prefixed the charac- Mr. W. Andrews, in Cariosities of the Church, teristic de, but a colour dame, equivalent to the 1890, pp. 22-9, mentions a tradition that it arose Welsh Lloyd. HERBERT MAXWELL.

in expiation for a murder. He has a full account 6 Qur' old titled families prefer the e.

." of it, with a print of the gad-whip and of the Not in Scotland. Witness the barony of Gray, ceremony of the procession of the ass, with which which, on the death of the late Earl of Moray, it is also compared in Chambers's Book of Days,' emerged, and is held by Mrs. Eveleen McLaren vol. i. pp. 396-8. There are illustrations of the Smith, dow Lady Gray in the peerage of Scot- whip and the procession both in Chambers and land.

GEURGE ANGOS. Androws, but the print of the wbip is more comSt. Andrews, N.B.

plete in the latter. Mr. Andrews also mentions that Against the English titles of Grey may be set there was an unsuccessful petition to the House of the old Scotch barony of Gray, just successfully Lords for the abolition of the custom from the claimed by Mrs. Eveleen Smith.

Lord of the Manor of Hundon, but that it was not C. F. S. WARREN, M.A.

abolished until the sale of the Manor of Broughton Longford, Coventry.

in 1846. It is supposed, but without any authority, to have its origin in

a self-inflicted penance by NORMAN ROLL AT Dives (8th S. ix. 467).- a former nun of the Broughton estate for killing 1. Raoul de Mortemer or Ralph de Mortimer, son a boy with such a whip (Andrews, p. 27). Sir of Roger de Mortimer, of St. Martin, Normandy, 0. 8. J. Anderson, in his 'Pocket Guide to from whom are descended the Barons Mortimer of Lincolo,' gives an account of it, with the statement Wigmore and Earls of March, &o. 2. Redaud “that it is now given up,” 1880, p. 87. The and Tarstin de Sainte Hélène, sons of Rou, pro- symbolical character of the proceedings appears in bably take the name from some parish or lordsbip. Androws, p. 24.

ED. MARSHALL. 3. Robert de Rhuddlan, son of Umfrid, an AngloDane, by Adeliza, sister of Hugh de Grantmespil

Surely by this time the Caistor gad-whip must of the family of Giroie. Knighted by Edward the be quite an old friend. See 'N. & Q.,' 570 S. i. Confessor ; visits bis relations in Normandy and 506, and the references there ; Mr. Andrews's

W. C. B. retards to England after the battle of Senlac. books, &c. He was attached to the service of Hugh, Earl of This manorial custom continued for a considerOhester, and commanded the troops on the Welsh able period until 1846, when the land was sold. border. His principal residence was Rhuddlan C. is referred to Andrews's 'Bygone Lincolnshire' Castle, and from that place he takes his name (see and Androws's Curiosities of the Church' for Ordericus Vitalis). 4. Richard de Saint Clair-information on this bject.

J. P. B. the Sinolairs of Rosslyn, Earls of Orkney and

[Many replies, some of them very long, are acknow. Caithness, claim descent from this family, who

ledged.] resided at St. Clair, near St. Lo, in the Cotentin, Normandy.

Joan RADCLIFFE. TEE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER IN ROMAN I am sure J. B. S. will forgive me for pointing the Psalms is not confined to religious houses, as

OFFICES (8th S. ix. 469 ; x. 17, 60).—The use of out that his statement that a roll or list of the MR. EDWARD H. MARSHALL seems to think. If companions of the Conqueror was erected” in the church of Dives is likely to cause misappre- (Barns & Oates) he will find a good many churches,

he will look through the Catholic Directory hension. The list of dames is inside the church served by seculars, where vespers, or compline, or of Notre Dame in Dives, and carved in bold letters in the stone wall above the west door. It the Divine Office cannot be chanted, but that is

both, are sung.

No doubt, in a great many places, may be as well to add that Dives is within a mile simply on account of our poverty and paucity of of Cabourg, a boa-bathing place about an hour's clergy and choirs. Nor can we pretend to vie with railway ride from Trouville. THORNFIELD.

the Church of England cathedrals as regards the What connexion is there between Rhuddlan power and sweetness with which the Psalms are Castle and the third Edward ? I ask for ioforma- 'sung. But we lack endowments with which to

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