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gates. It is, therefore, not a little mortifying to

find that the various local nomenclators are disCONTENTS.-No 239.

abusing the city of one of her ancient claims, NOTES:--The Gates” of York, 69_Shakspeariana, 70-and so, in one particular, allowing her to fall to

Thieves' Candles, 71–Lucifer Matches—The Battle of the
Nilo-Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk–Meals of Our An- the level of industrial mushroom towns in the
cestors, 72 - Thomas Dyche - Rev. George Munford - county.
Thackerayana, 73--

The Devil's Plot of Land --Literary
Knowledge - Blessing Fisheries—“Smoker":

“ Sleeper":

The word "gate ” is probably derived from the “Diner"-Fulwood's Rents, 74.

Danish gata, & street. Some of these gates are QUERIES :-- Prince Charles and Mlle. Luci-A Legend of broad arteries, others intricate viens, while many Reading Abbey'-Gerry-Oak Boughs-Gordon-Manor of Toley Fee-A Washington and Milton-Goldings, 75–

are mere capillaries in comparison. And, while Soldier's Marriage-Herlot and Cowan Hospitals---Com- several still retain the names they bore in mediæval neni and Napoleon-William Warham-Timber Trees, times, it is not a little strange to find that the prinArms of the Mercers' Company-Rider's 'British Merlin Source of Quotation Feer and Flet,” 76–Alexander cipal thoroughfare in the city, Coney Street, has Carlyle --- Pompadour - Jack Sheppard – Tout Family- never been called a gate. Highland Sheep-Churchwardens, 77. REPLIES :-St. Paul's Ohurchyard, 77–St. Uncumber

Bishopgate, Castlegate, Colliergate, Coppergate, Slayer of Argus, 78-Dorset Vialect-St. Sampson, 79– Davygate, and Feasegate head the list of the “ Bedstaves Benest and Pedigrees Brown's Schooldays Church Briefs, 80-Charee Flitter-thirty existing gates. Langwith imagined that an mouse".--Henry Justice—Pamela—Edward Young, 81– image dedicated to St. Faith had at a remote Lead Lettering-F. Robson-R. Huisb-Ku Klux Klan- period stood in Feasegate. Written S. Fe in old

”Chestnuts, 82 of In Memoriam? Margraves of Anspach Eschuid French, he hence submits that the present spelling Dyce Sombre--Flags, 83–Games in Ohurchyards -- Wind- should be Feesgate. Drake, however, supposes mills-Salters Waterloo Banquet'-Lord John Russell, that Feasegate took its name from the Old Eng. 84 — "Bombellieas" - Old Clock Noted Names'- Pope's Villa, 85—Knights of St. John of lish

feag flagellare," to beat with Jerusalem-Service Book--Family Societies—Patriot, 86– rods, and is thereby led to conjecture that S. Blower-Rose, 87. NOTES ON BOOKS :- New English Dictionary:-Villari's offenders were whipped through this street and *Florentine History' – Naval and Military Trophies," round the market. Allen thinks it probable that Part 11.- Catalogue of Engraved National Portraits '- it was originally Feastgate, from its proximity to E. V. B.'s Ros Rosarum.'

Jubbergate, and, considering the peculiar religious Notices to Correspondents.

customs of the people who resided there, he con

concludes that the Jews from the neighbouring Hotes.

towns and villages might, at their periodical

feasts held in York, have been accommodated in this THE “GATES" OF YORK.

street. To say nothing of the present four mediæval Then we have Fishergate, Fossgate, Friargate, bars of York, its other two arched openings called Gillygate, and Goodramgate--all names full of bars, and its two remaining old posterns, the old meaning. The quaint, winding thoroughfare called northern metropolis has to this day thirty actual Goodramgate is said to have derived its name gates either within or immediately without its from the circomstance of its having, in the time hoary limestone walls, and I have a record of of Alfred the Great, contained the residence of a twenty-eight more which used to exist. The city Danish general named Godram, Gotheram, or bad at one time just about as many churches as Guthrum, who was Deputy-Governor of York. gates, and the sites of nearly every one can still Following on in alphabetical order, we have Hol. be traced. To most people of little or no con- gate, Hungate, and Jubbergate. It goes without sequence, to the man of antiquarian taste of great saying that Jubbergate was the principal Jew consequence, it is time that some stand was taken quarter in the middle ages, and Hargrove speaks against the unsuspected gradual diminution of the of the remains of several ancient walls on its gates. One can have nothing whatever to say north side, which tradition claims to be part of a against newly-built streets in the suburbs being Jewish synagogue. In the neighbourhood of Jewcalled streets ; but the writer thinks there is some bury, without the walls, the Jews had their just cause for protest against the modernized gates burial-ground. Then we have Marygate, Micklebeing re-signboarded streets or roads. There seems gate, Minstergate, Monkgate, Nessgate, Newgate, no reason why York should not be allowed to pre-Ousegate, Petergate, Skeldergate, Spurriergate, serve as much of her ancient character as possible, and Stonegate. Formerly the principal street in and her gates have for centuries been amongst her the city, Stonegate is, perhaps, still the most picmost noticeable characteristics. It has been said turesque. It derived its name from the tremendous that the city had two “streets” only ; at present loads of stone carried througb, and no doubt she has by far too many. The advent of Sequah strewed in it, during the various erections of the a few years ago will be remembered by the citizens, | Minster. Here are the most antique houses of and bow amusingly and eruditely bo nightly ex. any principal street in the city ; 'here the old patiated on his new "finds” concerning the many print, book, picture, and music shops. One of

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the best specimens is that occupied by Mr. J. W. Street, a foolish change to make, for many reasons. Knowles, whose famous medieval art works are Girdlergate was 80 called from its baving been the behind. Formerly this house was called “At the general place of residence for the girdlers, who Sign of the Bible," a great place for bibliophiles. were formerly so numerous in York as to form The Bible, bearing a seventeenth-century date, is themselves into a guild. The Merchant Girdlers' carefully preserved by Mr. Knowles.

Company was one of those numerous York guilds St. Andrewgate leads to the church of St. of wbich only two have survived to the present Andrew. The greater part of this edifice still time. The etymology of Glovergate, Haymanger. stands, though it has been for long most woefully gate, Hertergate, Ispyogate, Jowbretgate, and desecrated. No church in York has undergone Kergate might also be given. That of Ketmangarstranger mutations. It has been a house of prayer gate is most interesting. The apper part either of and praise, then a den for thieves, then a common St. Saviourgate or St. Andrewgate was, about brothel, then (part of it) a stable, then a free 1585, known as Ketmangargate, probably because grammar school. Followiog St. Saviourgate comes it may have at one time been the market for Swinegate, which may bave taken its name from horseflesh, which was called “ket." Horsefilesh is the many swine kept here by poor families. It is no more poison now than in olden times ; but always said that the late Sir Joseph Barnby, before the Conquest it was often eaten deliberately once a choir boy in the Minster-emanated from and ravenously, and there was a particular relish Swipegate. As to Walmgate celebrated all for the flesh of young foals. After Littlegate we England over for its bar and barbican-Drake and have High Mangergate, an ancient name for the others have supposed it to be a corruption of the Shambles.wynd, and variously supposed to be Roman Watlingate. Hargrove considers the name derived from the French word manger, to eat, and to be but a corruption of Vallumgate, as being in from the Saxon word mangere, implying trade. proximity to a wall or bulwark. The bulwarks We then have, finally, Markgate, Nedlergate, cited for this accommodation are Walmgate Bar, Noutgate, Outergate, Thrusgate, and Watlingate. Fishergate Bar, and the Red Tower.

The etymology of many of these lost gates is not The thirtieth and last of the existing gates is far to seek.

HARWOOD BRIERLEY. Whipmawhopmagate-surely an interesting ono. matope. As a street, it is at present a section

SHAKSPEARIANA, of Colliergate, and may be regarded as a street

'HAMLET,' I. iii. 36 (86b S. X. 23). — with only one side, containing simply two shops,

The dram of eale a butcher's and a tobacconist's. Henry Brambam,

Doth all the noble substance of a doubt the tobacconist, preserves the name on his paper

To his own scandal, bage, which show that 16, Colliergate and 1, Whip: To read “ base" for eale requires almost the courage mawhopmagate are synonymous addresses. All old documents show these two houses to be in Tale of a Tub, who substituted " broomsticks

of that prince of emendators, Peter, in Swift's Whipmawhopmagate. The original Whippa for "silver fringe." A more likely word seems to whopmagate was a short, narrow street, formed by a row of houses wbich ran in a line with the south V. i. 265 and Sonnet OXI. 10. The word was pro

me to be eisel (vinegar), for the use of which see side of Colliergate to the centre of Pavement. The bably going

out of use oven in Shakspeare's time, and strange-named gate was very probably the ancient boundary for the public whipping of delinquents.

may have puzzled the printer. Should not“ doubt »

be dout=do out, so epelt at IV. vii. 191. I should Barbergate, Beggargate, and Besyngate head suggest the lines be read as follows :my list of twenty-eight gates removed or going

The drain of eigel under different names. If Besyngate, wbich occurs

Dotb all the noble substance often dout in 1426, really was the alley now called Little

To his own scandal. Shambles, it may have signified Beastgate. We

E. S. A. are told that it was afterwards called Gyldgarths.

The dram of eale The Gyldgarths still exist at the end of Little

Doth all the noble substance of a doubt Shambles as a square enclosure, belonging origin

To his owne Ecandle, ally to the Merchant Butchers' Company. Here

Quarto 2, 1604, D i, bk. cattle are still penned before slaughtering. Gyld- I hoped I had stopped all emendations of eale, by garths evidently signifies the garth of the guild, showing that Quarto 2-to which we owe cale-spelt the former word being an equivalent in polite "devil” twice deale, in II. ii. 628:Eoglish to a small enclosed place, and the latter

The spirit that I have seene
word meaning the Merchant Butchers' Company. May be a deale, and the deale hath power
Following once more in alphabetical order are Ti assume a pleasing sbape.
Bloxamgate, Bretgate, Little Bretgate, Briggate As deale is "devil," so eale is "evil.”

" Doth " (now, of course, Bridge Street), Byrkgate, Carr. means “puts," and " of a doubt" is "into doubt, gate, and Girdlergate. This has become Church into a mess," as one has heard " instead of putting

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it_straight, she did it all of a muddle.” The stances which I need not explain, I was not a *Hamlet' lines need zo omendation.

reader of 'N. & Q.' during the years between 1880

F. J. FORNIVALL. and 1888. In one of those years KILLIGREW'S WINTER'S TALE,' IV. iv. 250.

note, and the discussion to which be refers as

having followed it, must have appeared. But, Clamour your tongues.

though I now for the first time learn that the subThis admonition does not convey much meaning to jest has already been discussed, I tako leave to modern ears. Should it not be “Chamber your remind KILLIGREW that it is you alone who tongues"? See Udal's translation of Erasmus's have the right to determine wbether or not a disApopthegmis,' p. 10 :

cussion has been “exbausted." As to KILLI. Onelesse he chaumbreed bis tougue.

GREW's remarks on the "full stop" appearing at

E. S. A. the end of my quotation, I think he might have A BARE BODKIN” (8th S. ix. 362, 422 ; x. 22). by me in order that the quotation might appear in

seen that the " full stop” was purposely inserted I hope DR. BREWER does not imagine that he is its pseudo-form of “popular individuality." singular in " reverence for the dear old bard."

R. M. SPENCE, M.A. Does be suppose that any sane man would know- Manee of Arbuthnott, N.B. ingly "attempt to amend him"? It is a very different matter to attempt to "amond,"not" him" SHAKSPEARE'S FIRST FOLIO (gib S. x. 23).but his editors' “emendations” and his printers' How many copies there may be with the variation blunders. Shakespeare and Shakespeare's text are in 'Othello,' p. 333 of the Tragedies," no one not identical. Would that they always were so ! can say ; but there are certainly more than two. Woald DR. BREWER, in bis superstitious reverence Some five or six years ago I saw one at Sotheby's for the text of "the dear old bard" go so far as to auction room. It was a fine tall copy, in old leave untouched “the kind life rendering poli- purple morocco, and quite complete ; but the title tician" in the First Folio text of Hamlet," IV. v.? with portrait was rather faint, and had the appear

R. M. SPENCE, M.A. ance of baving been taken out and washed. This Mange of Arbuthnott, N.B.

greatly detracted from its value. Nevertheless, if

I am not mistaken, it sold for 320l. or 3401. I • TROILUS AND CRESSIDA,' III. iii. (6th S. xi. am quite sure about the peouliar reading in 325, 396, 475; xii. 313; gis S. ix. 423 ; x. 22).- Othello,' because it was pointed out to me, and One touch of nature. I yet have the pote then made.

I have some I mach regret to find that since the date of Mr. recollection, also, of having seen at least one other SPENCE's note fresh justification has arisen for his described in a bookseller's catalogue, but cannot action in renowing the protest against the very

remember whose. vulgar errorof the misapplication of these backneyed

No doubt “ the mistake was discovered and words. Most unfortunately the wide circulation of corrected"; but it would be singular to discover Punch was made the means, on 4 July, of sending the mistake just as they had commenced printing, them round the world in the conspicuous form of and more singular still not to destroy the incorrect a motto to the cartoon of the week, with accom

copies, if there were only two or three of them. Is panying verses. "One touch of nature,'" I read, it not more probable that so considerable a portion "makes the whole world kin,' our Shakspeare had been worked off that it was considered the said." This is true, in the samé sedge that Shak most economical plan to reprint that half-sheet and speare also said, “My lord, 'tis I, the early village cancel the one with the error ? In doing this a cock," a facetious misapplication of which words, few might easily be overlooked.

I do not see how & produced in a precisely similar manner, I remember,

corrected proof-sheet" illustrated, in a former number of Punch. But could get among the perfect sheets. "If I am not loss of life and exercise of charity are not subjects mistaken, it is the custom for printers to take great that Punch is in the habit of selecting for facetious care of their proofs, for many reasons, and to refer treatment, and it is much to be regretted that, to the preceding when they receive a new one; with the whole world of literature to choose from, and if the earlier one is missed, diligent search has a quotation should have been used in a form fit to be made till it is found, or ructions only for the lips of Punch's Baboo Jamsetjee.

If, by unusual carelessness, a marked proof did KILLIGREW.

get among the sheets, unless the binder was as I think I have cause to complain that the note and thrown out on "gathering" or “collating.”

careless as the printer, it would have been seen signed by KILLIGREW at the last reference is some

R. R. what discourteous. KILLIGREW might have done Boston, Lincolnshire. me the justice to believe that, if I had known of his note in the Sixth Series, I should have had the Tateves' CANDLES.-Somo criminals, it would common honesty to refer to it. From ciroum- appear, entertain the horrible creed that the use of

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a candle made of a murdered man's fat will protect 10 P.M. In the foreground the Bellerophon is in them from discovery during their depredations. flames, and the crew are clambering over the bowActuated by this hideous and insane superstition, sprit in sore dismay. The British flag is well it is averred that two burglars in the district of displayed everywhere. No. 3 is midnight; one Ostrogojsk (Voroneje Government) recently mur- Vessel is in the act of blowing up, sails shot through dered a handsome stalwart young fellow villager are seen at every band, but no flags are flying. of eighteen, for the sake of his tallow. The story No. 4 is entitled 'On the Ensuing Morning. Α. goes on to state that, having butchered their victim, ship. is in flames-nationality uncertain--the these fiends ripped open the body, and tore out British flag floats proudly at every hand; whilst the epiploon, which they put up in a tin box, and the Frenchman's lies lowered on four several ships. carried home. Next came the melting-down pro- My worthy friend says he has had these engravings

The men's strange operations aroused the framed for thirty-six years in his home at Philasuspicions of their landlady-the more so, as ugly delphia ; but he adds, "they are not appreciated rumours of the poor young fellow's disappearance here," so he sends them to me. Perhaps some began to circulate and she gave information in the reader can suggest where they might go to be fully proper quarter. In conclusion it is mentioned that appreciated.

HARRY HEMS. the tin box and its contents have been handed to

Fair Park, Exeter. two well-known professors for examination. The above circumstantial account is from the St. wrote my letter on the above subject in 8. S. viii.

HENRY GREY, DUKE OF SUFFOLK. When I Petersburg Novosti and Bourse Gazette of 9th to 286, I overlooked a previous communication from 21st June, which refers to the Kharkoff Government the Rev. E. M. TOMLINSON, formerly Vicar of Holy Gazette as its authority, True or not true, the Trinity, Minories (64 S. xii

. 302), in which he charge is noteworthy, as bearing upon a very grue. expresses the view that the head found and still some piece of thieves' folk-lore or black art, culars under the beading Men and Candles' 1654, under Queen Mary, but of the Earl of SufThe curious will find some interesting parti- preserved in that church is not that of the Dake of

Suffolk (father of Lady Jane Grey), executed in (Adipocere) in the Mirror for 1828 (vol. zi. pp. 169, folk (Edmund de la Pole), who was beheaded

in 274), but the above superstition is not mentioned the year 1513, in the reign of Henry

VIII. This there.

H. E. M. St. Petersburg.

view seems to have been accepted by DR, SPARROW

SIMPSON (see his letter, on which I commented, 8th EARLY LUCIFER MATCHES.—It seems almost S. viii. 242). But the point is still subject to doubt. unaccountable that so little notice has been taken Dr. Kions, the present vicar, considers that the of the first stages in the development of these useful head may be that of the Duke of Suffolk, from the articles. For example, how few are the readers of resemblance of the features to those of his portrait 'N. & Q.' to whom the following, from Walter in the National Portrait Gallery, and also to one at Thornbury's 'Old and Now London,' vol. i. p. 123, Hatfield which is engraved in Lodgo’s ‘ Portraits." is not wholly unknown :

And, in reference to a remark by MR. TOMLINSON, "At the east corner of Peterborough Court, Fleet he does not think there are marks of two cuts by Street, was one of the earliest shops for the instan. the axe of the executioner, but, on the contrary, taneous light apparatus, known as Hertner's Eupyrion. one of the vertebræ of the neck seems to have been These were phosphorus and oxymuriate matches, to be cut through at one stroke. Dr. Kinns, I may dipped in sulphuric acid and, asbestog, the costly pre- remark, is preparing an elaborate work on the decessors of our lucifer match."


history of this church, in which the matter in Ventnor.

question will be fully gone into, together with

many other points of interest connected with the THE BATTLE OF THE NILE.-One of Phila- old priory and the present church. delphia's oldest citizens, whose boonteous hospi.

W. T. LYNN. tality in the “City of Brotherly LoveI have Blackheath. many time enjoyed, has sent me three engravings representing scenes in this great naval fight. Each

MEALS OF OUR ANCESTORS. --Some time ago engraving measures 2 ft. 4 in. by 1 ft. 51 in. They inquiry was made in N. & Q.' as to the hours at are dedicated “To the Right Honourable Admiral which our ancestors took their meals. The followLord Nelson of the Nile," his officers and his men, ing abstract of a lecture delivered by Mr. D'Arcy by “Robt. Dodd," who painted and engraved Power at the London Institution will give informathem. This artist published_these engravings at tion on the subject :41, Obaring Cross, London, February, 1799—the “Mr. Power said the old English had three meals a actual battle baving taken place 1 August in the day, of which the chief meal was taken when the work year before. There appear to have been four of the day was finished. The first meal was at 9, dinner

was about 3 o'clock, and supper was taken just before plates. The first in the series to hand is missing. bedtime. The Normang dined at the old English breakNo. 2 represents the condition of the fleets at fast time or a little later, and supped at 7 P.M. In Tudor times the higher classes dined at 11 and supped about 1795, and went to a school at Gorleston at 5, but the merchants seldom took their meals before kept by a Mr. Wright. He entered at Magdalen 12 and 6 o'clock. The chief meals, dinner and , were taken in the hall both by the old English and the Hall,

Oxford, but, for some reason, took no degree. Normans, for the parlour did not come into use until His first curacy was at North Walshan, and in the reign of Elizabeth. Breakfast did not become a 1821 he held a curacy at Lynn, where he married regular meal until quite lately, and Dr. Murray, in the Anna, eldest daughter of the Rev. Edward Ed* Oxford Dictionary, gave 1463 as the date of the earliest warde, sometime Fellow of Corpus Christi, Camquotation in which the word occurred. The meal did not become recognized until late in the seventeenth cen- þridge, and rector of the churchless parish of North tury, for Pepys habitually took his draught of half a pint Lynd, but lecturer at St. Margaret's, Lyon. of Rhenish wine or a dram of strong waters in place of In 1842 Mr. Edwards obtained, in addition to a morning meal. Dinner was always the great meal of the above, the vicarage of East Winch, Dear Lynn, the day, and from the accession of Henry IV. to the and Mr. Munford became his father-in-law's curate. death of Queen Elizabeth the dinners were

as sumptuous On the death of Mr. Edwards, in 1849, Mr. Manand extravagant as any of those now served, Carving was then a fine art. Each guest brought his own knife ford succeeded him as vicar of East Winch. and spoon, for the small fork was not introduced into

This living he retained until his death on 17 May, England until Thomas Coryate, of Odcombe, published bis Crudities' in 1611. Pepys took his spoon and 1871, and a large runio cross marks_his burial fork with him to the Lord Mayor's feast in 1663. The place in East Winch Churchyard. He left one absence of forks led to much stress being laid upon the son, who is now rector of Swanton Abbot, near act of washing the hands both before and after meals Ayisham, and (for what reason

I know not) calls and to the rule that the left band alone should be himself Montford-the Rov. E. Edwards Montford. dipped into the common dibh, the right hand being occupied with the knife. The perfect dinner at the best

The Rev. George Munford was the author of :time of Euglish cookery consisted of three courses, each 1. 'An Analysis of the Doomsday Book of the completo in itself, and terminated by a subtlety or County of Norfolk,' published in 1858 by J. device, the whole being rounded off with Ypocras, after Russell Smith, 36, Soho Square, W. which the guests retired into another room, whore pastry, sweetmeats, and fruit were served with the

2. 'An Attempt to Ascertain the True Derivachoicer wines. The English were essentially meat eaters, tion of the Names of Towns and Villages, and of and it was not until the time of the Commonwealth that Rivers, &c., of the County of Norfolk,'

. 1870, pudding attained its extraordinary popularity; indeed, commonly called . Local Names in Norfolk.' the first mention of pudding in the menus of the • Buckfeast' at St. Bartholomew's Hospital did not occur

3. 'A List of Flowering Plants found growing until 1710, and in 1712 is an itom of 5s. for ice."

wild in Western Norfolk,' 1841 (forty copies E. LEATON-BLENKINSOPP. printed for private circulation).

This list was

prepared for the 1864 edition of White's 'Norfolk THOMAS DYCHE.-I much regret that in my Directory.'. notice of this delightful old pedagogue contributed Mr. Walter Rye, in his 'Norfolk Topography, to Dict. Nat. Biog.? (xvi. 282) I entirely over- 1881 (preface, p. ix), states that Sir Henry Spel, looked the reference to him in Smeeton's Biog. man's * Icenia' was being translated and annotated Carioba,' p. 13, where it is recorded that Thomas by the Rev. G. Munford, but he died before it was Dyche, schoolmaster to the charity children of finished. St. Andrew, Holbom, some time before his death Mr. Rye adds, "I do not know if the MS. has (1719) made a solemn vow not to shift his linen been preserved.' I have reason to believe that it till the Pretender was seated on the throne." remains in the possession of the translator's son

GORDON GOODWIN. before mentioned. Persons interested in the bisThe Rev. GEORGE MUNFORD.-.

With reference print, but more, perhaps, for Mr. Munford's notes

tory of Norfolk would be glad to see this work in to MR. HOLCOMBE INGLEBY's note at grb S. ix. than for Spelman's rather superficial little uncom 512—I am quite familiar with the name of the Rov. G. Munford, and cannot account for the

pleted essay 'Iconia' occupies pp. 135–162 of misspelling, nor for the far worse error in the same

Reliquiæ Spelmanniane, London, 1723.

I have found Mr. Munford's Local Names in note by which Mr. Walter Ryo is transmogrified Norfolk both useful and interesting, and I trust into Mr. Walters ! I adhere to my opinion about Mr. Munford's name, and to acquit me of indifference to his

this little notice will tend to keep alive the author's mythical Saxons, but am quito prepared to assent

reputation. As to the soientific value of bis to MR. INGLEBY's statement that, if Mr. Munford etymologies it would be interesting to have the cannot claim to be a great authority on place opinion of such an expert as Canon TAYLOB. dames, his book yet contains suggestions which

JAMES HOOPER. cannot be lightly set aside. As Mr. Munford Norwich. finds no place in the 'Dictionary of National Biography,' perhaps I may be allowed to put on record THACKERAYANA.— The following story was lately a few particulars about him.

told to me by an American professor. Thackeray, at George Manford was born at Great Yarmouth the time he was writing 'The Virginians,' was dining

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