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SUMPTUARY LAWS,

odious character of, 483.
SUNDAY,

laws to prevent desecration of, how defended, 594.

police regulations regarding, 734.
SUPPORT,

of children, liability of father for, 420.

lateral, of lands, right to, 679,,n.
SUPREMACY OF PARLIAMENT,

extent of, 4, 105, 108, 318.
SUPREME LAW,

Constitution, laws, and treaties of United States to be, 14.

of a State, constitution to be, 2, 3.
SURRENDER,

of fugitives from justice, 21, 22.
SUSPENSION OF LAWS,

when authorized must be general, 490.

for limitation of actions, 455, n.
SWAMPS,

drains for, 665, 741.
special assessments for draining, 635.

T.

TAKING OF PROPERTY,
of individuals for public use, 635, n., 651.

(See EMINENT DOMAIN; Taxation.)
TAX LAWS,
directory and mandatory provisions in, 89-93.

(See Taxation.)
TAX SALES,

curing defective proceedings in, by retrospective legislation, 477, 488.
what defects should avoid, 647-649.
deeds given upon, may be made evidence of title, 458, 459.
conditions to redemption from, 459, n.

(See Taxation.)
TAXATION, ,

and representation to go together, 32 and n., 73, n., 142, n., 205.
construction of grant of, 267, n.
right of, compared with eminent domain, 699.
exemptions from, by the States, when not repealable, 154, 341.
can only be for public purposes, 157, 211, 607, 616.
must be by consent of the people, 142, n.
license fees distinguished from, 245.
by municipalities, power of legislature over, 144, 260, 339.
reassessment of irregular, may be authorized, 255.
irregular may be confirmed by legislature, 377, 378.
necessary to the existence of government, 598.
unlimited nature of power of, 598–604.
of agencies of national government by the States impliedly forbidden,

600-604.

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TAXATION, — continued.

of agencies of the States by the national government also forbidden, 602.
of the subjects of commerce by the States, 605, 731.
discriminations in, as between citizens of different States, 606.
legislature the proper authority to determine upon, 608-617.
apportionment essential to, 617.
taxing districts, necessity of, 618. 622.
apportionment not always by values, 618, 624.
license fees and other special taxes, 619.
assessments for local improvements, 619.

benefits from the improvement may be taken into the account, 619,

629, 636.
general provisions requiring taxation by value do not apply to these

assessments, 621.
taxation of persons or property out of the district is void, 623-628, 643.
must be uniform throughout the district, 625.
local assessments may be made in proportion to frontage, 632.

necessity for apportionment in such case, 632.
special taxing districts for drains, levees, &c., 634, 635.
taxation in labor for repair of roads, &c., 637.
difficulty in making taxation always equal, 639.
hardships of individual cases do not make it void, 639.
legislature must select the objects of taxation, 610.
exemptions of property from, 640, 641.
constitutional provisions which preclude exemptions, 642, 643.
special exemptions void, 641, n., 642, n.
legislative authority must be shown for each particular tax, 643–646.
excessive taxation, 656.
the maxim de minimis lex non curat not applicable in tax proceedings,

647.

what defects and irregularities render tax sales void, 648.
TEACHER AND SCHOLAR,

control of former over latter, 421.
TECHNICAL RULES OF CONSTRUCTION,

danger of resorting to, 75, n., 99, 99–102.
TELEGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE,

right to secrecy in, 375, n.
TEMPERANCE LAWS,

right of the States to pass, 725–727.
TENNESSEE,

divorces not to be granted by legislature, 133, n.
title of act to express the object, 172, n.
constitutional provision relating to amendment of acts, 184, n.
when acts to take effect, 192, n.
right of jury to determine the law in libel cases, 399, n.
protection to person and property by law of the land, 436, n.
constitutional provision respecting retrospective laws, 462, n.
liberty of speech and of the press in, 520, n.
privilege of legislators in debate, 556, n.
exclusion of religious teachers from office, 583, n.

n.

TERRITORIAL LIMITATION,

to the powers of sovereignty, 2.
to the exercise of power by the States, 154, 155.
to municipal authority, 260.

to power of taxation, 622-627, 643.
TERRITORIES,

power of eminent domain in, 653.
legislation for, 33, n.

formation of constitutions by people of, 38–40.
TEST OATHS,

when may constitute a punishment, 321, 322.

forbidden in some States, 584, n.
TEXAS,

admission to Union, 10.
Mexican law retained in the system of, 35, n.
special statutes licensing sale of lands forbidden, 119, n.
divorces not to be granted by legislature, 133, n.
legislative rules regulating pardons, 140, n.
no act to be amended by mere reference to its title, 183, 184, n.
title of acts to express the object, 172, n.
right of jury to determine the law in libel cases, 399, n.
protection to person and property by law of the land, 436, n.
constitutional provision respecting retrospective laws, 462, n.
liberty of speech and of the press in, 522, n.
religious tests for office forbidden in, 583,

exclusions from suffrage in, 753.
THIRTEENTH AMENDMENT,

provisions of, 12, 361.
IME,

loss of remedy by lapse of, 453–456.

and place are of the essence of election laws, 758, 759.
TITLE TO LEGISLATIVE ACT,

requirement that it shall state subject, &c., is mandatory, 97–99, 172–183.
TITLES OF NOBILITY,

States not to grant, 23, 41.
TOLERATION,

as distinguished from religious liberty, 580-582.
TOWN EXPENSES,
cannot embrace pay for lobby services, 166, n., 259, n.

(See MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS.)
TOWNSHIPS,

importance of, in the American system, 239, n.
origin of, 228.
distinguished from chartered corporations, 296.
collection from corporators of judgments against, 297–303.
not liable for neglect of duty by officers, 302.
apportionment of debts, &c., on division, 292, 355.
indemnification of officers of, 224, 259.

(See MunicipAL CORPORATIONS.)
TRADE,

by-laws in general restraint of, 246, 247.

TRAVEL,

obstructions to, on navigable waters, 739.

regulating speed of, 734, 741.
TRAVERSE JURY,
trial of accused parties by, 394-406.

(See JURY TRIAL.)
TREASON,

evidence required to convict of, 385.
TREATIES,

of the United States, to be the supreme law, 14.

States forbidden to enter into, 19.
TREATING VOTERS,

laws against, 773.
TRIAL,

of right to property, 459.
new, not to be granted by legislature, 116, 492.
of accused parties to be by jury,.379.

must be speedy, 382.
must be public, 383.

(See CRIMES ; Jury TRIAL.)
TRUST,

the legislative not to be delegated, 141, 249.
TRUSTEES,

special statutes authorizing sales by, constitutional, 118-129.
rights of cestuis que trust not to be determined by legislature, 127.

municipal corporations as, 231, 339, n.
TRUTH,

as a defence in libel cases, 530, 519, 577.

necessity of showing good motives for publication of, 577.
TURNPIKES,

exercise of eminent domain for, 664, 665.
appropriation of highways for, 681.

change of, to common highways, 683, n.
TWICE IN JEOPARDY,

punishment of same act under State and national law, 24.
under State law and municipal by-law, 242.

(See JEOPARDY.)
TWO-THIRDS OF HOUSE,

what constitutes, 171.

U.
ULTRA VIRES,

contracts of municipal corporations which are, 237, 258, 259, 267, n.
UNANIMITY,

required in jury trials, 396.
UNCONSTITUTIONAL LAW,

definition of the term, 4.
first declaration of, 196, n.
power of the courts to annul, 194.
whether jury may pass upon, 415, n.

(See COURTS; STATUTES.)

UNEQUAL AND PARTIAL LEGISLATION,

special laws of a remedial nature, 488.
local laws, or laws applying to particular classes, 488–493.
proscription of parties for opinions, 489.
suspensions of the laws must be general, 490, 491.
distinctions must be based upon reason, 492.
equality the aim of the law, 493.
strict construction of special burdens and privileges, 491-497.

discrimination against citizens of other States, 20, 497.
UNIFORMITY,

in construction of constitutions, 67.
in taxation, 616, 622.

(See Taxation.)
UNION,

of the Colonies before the Revolution, 6.
UNITED STATES,

division of powers between the States and Union, 2.
origin of its government, 6.
Revolutionary Congress, and its powers, 7, 8.
Articles of Confederation and their failure, 6-9.
formation of Constitution of, 8.
government of, one of enumerated powers, 10, 11, 210.
general powers of, 11-14.
its laws and treaties the supreme law, 15.
judicial powers of, 15, 25.
removal of causes from State courts to courts of, 15.
prohibition upon exercise of powers by the States, 19–22.
guaranty of republican government to the States, 23.
implied prohibition of powers to the States, 24.
reservation of powers to States and people, 25.

consent of, to formation of State constitutions, 38.
(See CONGRESS; ConstiTUTION OF UNITED STATES ; Courts OF UNITED

STATES; PRESIDENT.)
UNJUST DEFENCES,

no vested right in, 461.
UNJUST PROVISIONS,

in constitutions, must be enforced, 87.
in statutes, do not necessarily avoid them, 199–203.

(See ParTIAL LEGISLATION )
UNLAWFUL CONTRACTS,

(See ILLEGAL CONTRACTS.)
UNMUZZLED DOGS,

restraining from running at large, 748.
UNREASONABLE BAIL,

not to be required, 380.
UNREASONABLE BY-LAWS,

are void, 243.
UNREASONABLE SEARCHES AND SEIZURES,

(See SEARCHES AND SEIZURES.)
UNWHOLESOME PROVISIONS,

prohibiting sale of, 748.

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