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He recommends his mother to the care of John.
413 the wife of Cleophas, name was also Mary), who was [the wife) of SECT: and Mary Magdalene. Cleopas b, and Mary Magdalene ; and with them also John, his intimate friend; the relater of
John Jesus Jesus therefore seeing his mother, and John 26 therefore saw his mor the disciple whom he peculiarly loved, standing standing by whom he near, his affectionate care and regard to both, so loved, he saith unto wrought in his heart in the midst of all his ago. his mother, Woman, nies, that he said to his mother, Woman", behold behold thy son.
thy son ; consider that dear friend of mine as thy
tion and care which thou wouldest shew to me
lemnly with my dying breath bequeath her to
And Jesus having hung upon the cross about Mat. Now (Luke, it was three hours, it was now near noon, or, accord-XXVII. about the sixth botrz ing to the Jewish manner of expressing the time; hour there was dark. it was about the sixth hour ; and from the sixth ness over all the land hour, there was an amazing and supernatural darkness over the whole land of Judea till the ninth
MAT. XXVII. 45.
His mother's sister, Mary [the wife] care of John, so this concern that he exof Cleopas.] It is not determined in the pressed for her support must have affected original whether she was the wise, or mo
her no less than if he had called her mother, or daughter of Cleopas; but critics ther; which some have thought he might generally suppose she was his wife ; and not choose to do, to avoid exposing her to that he was also called Alpheus, and was the abuses of the populace, by a discovery the father, as this Mary was the mother, of her near relation to him. But woman of James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas, was a title he belore had used in speaking who are therefore called our Lord's brethren to his mother where no such caution was or kinsmen. (Mat. xiii. 55.) See note e necessary; and it was frequently applied on John xiv. 22, p. 309.-Grotius indeed in ancient times, even to persons that were thinks that Cleopas was her father, and the most respected. See noted on John ii. Alpheus her husband. After all, we can. 4, Vol. VI. p. 132. not certainly determine it; but, like most d Behold ihy Son.] Some have explained other undeterminable points, it is a matter these words as if they only signified, “ Beof no great importance. I know none hold a person who will carry it to thee as who has set it in a plainer and juster light thy son, and will take care of thee.” But than Dr. Edwards Exercit. part ii. No. 1, as the tenderness of Jesus for his mother is p. 163, & seq.
expressed in the next verse, in the direcc Sail to his mother, Woman.) We have tion that he gives to Joho to treat her as observed elsewhere that Joseph probably his mother, it seems more natural to underwas dead some time before (compare noteb stand this former exhortation as expressive on John ii. 1, Vol. VI. p. 131, and note of his kindness for John, and so take it as on John vi. 42, Vol. VI. p. 430); and as a direction given to his mother to regard Jesus now shewed the tender concern be him as her son with all the affection of a had for his mother in committing her to the tender parent.
3 F 2
Jesus cries out of God's forsaking him. SECT. hours, or till three o'clock in the afternoon; unto the ninth hour. during which time it was as dark as if there (Mark XV.33. Luke
XXIII. 44.] had been a total eclipse of the sun, though in a XXVII. Natural way it was impossible, as it was now full
46 moon'. And this darkness, with wrich the 46 And about the face of nature seemed overspread, was a lively with a loud voice, say
ninth hour Jesus cried emblem of the darkness and distress of spirit ing [ Eli, Eloi), lama with which the Lord of nature was then over- sabachthani ? that is whelmed, and with which he struggled in the preted), My God, my solemn silence, and unutterable bitterness of God, why hast thou his soul. But about the ninth hour, Jesus cried forsaken me? [MARK with a loud voice, saying in the Hebrew, or ra
e There was darkness over the whole his excellent Connection of the Sacred and land.] There are so many places in which Profane History of the World, has advanced gron signifies a particular country, and not some important considerations to prove, the whole earth, that I have chosen here to that it is at least very uncertain whether follow our translation ; and the rather, be- the Jewish months, according to the Mosaic cause the farther we suppose this darkness institution, began with a new moon, and to extend, the more unaccountable it is, consequently whether their passover, which that no Heathen writers should bave men was fixed to the fourteenth day of the first tioned it except Phlegon; if he is indeed month, must always happen at full moon. to be excepted. A darkness over the whole But be allows that, towards the decline of earth at once must have been preternatural their state, it did. Aod indeed Josephus, at any time ; and it is morally impossible, who, being a Jewish priest, is an unexthat a multitude of accounts of it should ceptiovable witness in this case, seems to not, even by a tradition of many hundred put it beyond all possibility of doubt; exvears, have been transmitted to posterity. pressly asserting, that the day of expiation, What is said of the Chinese chronicles men, and consequently their other feasts, were tioning it, must be very uncertain ; and as reckoned by the age of the moon. (Joseph. of Josephus, his omission of it, I think Antiq. lib. iii. cap. 10, § 3. Aixcin to Dr. More with reason accounts for it, by people sale chumv.) his unwillingness to mention a fact which g Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani ?] It is had so favourable au aspecton Christianity: evident these are Syro. Chaldaic, and not and the Jews would, no doubt, disguise it properly Hebrew words ; for in the original as much as they could, and perhaps might of Psal. xxii. 1, it is not, as here, 758 persuade him, and others, who heard the Sunpaw nooś, but 'snaiy nos report of it at some distance of time or place, that it was only a dark cloud, or a
inging. Dr. Edwards thinks our Lord inick mist, which the followers of Jesus had in his agony repeated the words twice with exaggerated, because it happened when some litrie variation, saying at one time, their Master died. Such representations Eloi, and at the other Eli
. This is possible; are exceeding natural to hearts corrupted and it it were otherwise, I doubt not but by infidelity.
Mark has given us the word exactly, and f As it was now full moon.] Mr. Shuck- Matthew a kind of contraction of it. See ford, in his prejace to the third volume of Edwards's Exercit. p. 193—196.
The Jews pretend that he was calling for Elijah. 415
upon my soul, and which thou knowest I have sEcT.
done nothing to forfeith? 47 [And] some of Jesus by the use of these words, borrowed them that stood (by) from the beginning of the twenty-second psalm, XXVII. that, said, [Behold] gave the spectators a useful hint that the whole 47 this man calleth for of it referred to him; and it might well have led Elias. [Mark XV. them to observe how many passages of it had 35.]
then a literal accomplishment in him: but if
from paradise to his assistance JOHN XIX. 28. Af. Immediately after this doleful cry, Jesus John ter this, Jesus know. knowing that all the grievous and terrible things XIX. 28 nuw accomplished, that he had to surfer in the way to death, were now
the upon the point of being perfectly accomplished,
and finding himself parched with a violent
h Why hast thou forsaken me?] The pious prehension of his constant favour, and high and judicious Lord Chief Justice Hale approbation of what he was now doing), has a strange reflection on these words; was as necessary as it was that Christ should “ We may (says he with reverence con suffer at all. For had God communicated ceive, that at the lime of this bitter cup, to his Son on the cross those strong consola. the soul of our blessed Redeemer was for tions which he has given to some of the the present overshadowed with so much martyrs in their tortures, all sense of pain, astonishment and sorrow, as to overpower and consequently all real pain, would have and cover the distinct sense of the reason been swalloved up; and the violence done of his sufferings, at least in some measure to his body, not affecting the soul, could not and degree." (Hale's Contemplations, Vol. properly have been called suffering. 1. p. 72.) But the sense given in the i and some of them that stood by, &c.) paraphrase is much more natural. Thus Whether this was, as Dr. Edwards (Exercit. in a most humble and affectionate man. p. 196—203), and Mr. Cracock (Harm. ner he reininds his heavenly Father, that he part ii. p. 256), suppose the misiake of was only by imputation a sinner, and had some Hellenist Jers, who did not underhimself done nothing to incur his displea- stand the Syro-Chaldaic language; or whesure.--I choose not, with Dr. More in ther it proceeded from bis being raised so his Thevlogical Works, p. 292), to render high, that, amidst the rude noise around it How far, or to what degree, hasl thou for- hiin, they did not distinctly hear; I do not saken me! because though this would be a pretend to say. Perhaps the malice of those just version of oras, the Greek word oveli, who did hear what he said, might misrewhich answers to it in Matthew, is not present his words, to prevent any serious liable to such ambiguity.-- conclude with reflections on the psalm from which they adding, that this interruption of a joyful were taken, and to expose him to farther sense of his Father's presence (though there contempt. was, and could not but be, a rational ap
29 Now there was
MAT. XXVII. 49.
In his thirst, they give him vincgar to drink. SECT. Ixix. 21), where the Messiah is described as cry- the scripture might be ing out,
My tongue cleaveth to my jaws, and fulfilled, saith, I thirst. Joho
in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink," xix. 28. to shew that he endured all that had been fore
told concerning him, said, I thirst.
a vessel full of vinegar near the crossk; and im- set a vessel full of vi-
to drink.] (MAT. him to drink. But the rest of them that stood XXVII.
bv, said, Let [him) alone, and let us see whether XV. 36.-1
Elijah, whom he has just been calling upon, The rest said, (Let 2:
When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, JOHN XIX. 30.xix. 30 and thus had perfectly fulfilled the prophecies had received the vine
relating to his sufferings, he said, It is finished; gar, he said, It is finish-
law are satisfied, the justice of God is atoned, Luke and my sufferings are now at an end. And
And (when he had XXUI. crying out again with a great and strong voice, cried again with a loud 46 which plainly shewed that much of the strength voice, J he said, Father,
of nature was yet in bim; he said, with a lively into thy hands I com
LUKE XXIII. 46.
k A vessel full of vinegar.] It is well torture would naturally make their known that vinegar and water (which mix- thirsty. tuse was called posca) was the common i He dismissed or delivered up his Spirit, drink of the Roman soldiers : perhaps there- and expired.] The evangelists use different fore this vinegar was set here for their use, words in expressing our Lord's death, which or for that of the crucified persons, whose la little wonder that our translators render
XV. 38. LUKE XXIII.
Jesus disinisses his spirit, and the earth trembles.
417 Mat. XXVII. 51. And behold, God by a very awful and mira- Sect. And behoid (Luke, culous interposition, avowed the relation which _cxci. darkened), the vail of his Son claimed, and evidently appeared to the temple was rent in take the charge of that dear and excellent Spirit XXVII. twain (LUKE, in the which Jesus so solemnly recommended to him:51 to the bottom; and the for immediately upon his death, [while] the sun earth did quakc, and was still darkened, as was observed before (ver. the rocks rent; (MARK 45), the veil of the temple, which separated be
tween the holy and the most holy place, though
temple stood, and several of the rocks in the 52 And the graves neighbouring parts were torn asundern; And 52
in the same manner, he yielded, or gave up with a majesty and dignity never known,