Sidor som bilder


this story.




He recommends his mother to the care of John.

413 the wife of Cleophas, name was also Mary), who was [the wife) of SECT: and Mary Magdalene. Cleopas b, and Mary Magdalene ; and with them also John, his intimate friend; the relater of

John Jesus Jesus therefore seeing his mother, and John 26 therefore saw his mor the disciple whom he peculiarly loved, standing standing by whom he near, his affectionate care and regard to both, so loved, he saith unto wrought in his heart in the midst of all his ago. his mother, Woman, nies, that he said to his mother, Woman", behold behold thy son.

thy son ; consider that dear friend of mine as thy
own child, and treat him with the same affec-

tion and care which thou wouldest shew to me
27 Then saith he to under that near relation d. And then he said to 27
the disciple, Behold thy that disciple, Behold thy mother, and entertain
that hour that disciple towards her that reverence and love wbich a
took her unto his own child owes to a worthy parent; for I now so-

lemnly with my dying breath bequeath her to
thy care. And from that hour that disciple took
her home to his own [house], and maintained
her most cheerfully and respectfully, as if she
had indeed been his own mother.

And Jesus having hung upon the cross about Mat. Now (Luke, it was three hours, it was now near noon, or, accord-XXVII. about the sixth botrz ing to the Jewish manner of expressing the time; hour there was dark. it was about the sixth hour ; and from the sixth ness over all the land hour, there was an amazing and supernatural darkness over the whole land of Judea till the ninth






His mother's sister, Mary [the wife] care of John, so this concern that he exof Cleopas.] It is not determined in the pressed for her support must have affected original whether she was the wise, or mo

her no less than if he had called her mother, or daughter of Cleopas; but critics ther; which some have thought he might generally suppose she was his wife ; and not choose to do, to avoid exposing her to that he was also called Alpheus, and was the abuses of the populace, by a discovery the father, as this Mary was the mother, of her near relation to him. But woman of James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas, was a title he belore had used in speaking who are therefore called our Lord's brethren to his mother where no such caution was or kinsmen. (Mat. xiii. 55.) See note e necessary; and it was frequently applied on John xiv. 22, p. 309.-Grotius indeed in ancient times, even to persons that were thinks that Cleopas was her father, and the most respected. See noted on John ii. Alpheus her husband. After all, we can. 4, Vol. VI. p. 132. not certainly determine it; but, like most d Behold ihy Son.] Some have explained other undeterminable points, it is a matter these words as if they only signified, “ Beof no great importance. I know none hold a person who will carry it to thee as who has set it in a plainer and juster light thy son, and will take care of thee.” But than Dr. Edwards Exercit. part ii. No. 1, as the tenderness of Jesus for his mother is p. 163, & seq.

expressed in the next verse, in the direcc Sail to his mother, Woman.) We have tion that he gives to Joho to treat her as observed elsewhere that Joseph probably his mother, it seems more natural to underwas dead some time before (compare noteb stand this former exhortation as expressive on John ii. 1, Vol. VI. p. 131, and note of his kindness for John, and so take it as on John vi. 42, Vol. VI. p. 430); and as a direction given to his mother to regard Jesus now shewed the tender concern be him as her son with all the affection of a had for his mother in committing her to the tender parent.

3 F 2






Jesus cries out of God's forsaking him. SECT. hours, or till three o'clock in the afternoon; unto the ninth hour. during which time it was as dark as if there (Mark XV.33. Luke

XXIII. 44.] had been a total eclipse of the sun, though in a XXVII. Natural way it was impossible, as it was now full

46 moon'. And this darkness, with wrich the 46 And about the face of nature seemed overspread, was a lively with a loud voice, say

ninth hour Jesus cried emblem of the darkness and distress of spirit ing [ Eli, Eloi), lama with which the Lord of nature was then over- sabachthani ? that is whelmed, and with which he struggled in the preted), My God, my solemn silence, and unutterable bitterness of God, why hast thou his soul. But about the ninth hour, Jesus cried forsaken me? [MARK with a loud voice, saying in the Hebrew, or ra

XV. 34.)
ther in the Syriac language, Eloi, Eloi, lama
sabachthani ? that is, being interpreted into
other words, My God, My God, why hast thou
forsaken me? which was as if he had said, o
my heavenly Father, wherefore dost thou add
to all my other sufferings those which arise from
the want of a comfortable sense of thy pre-
sence? Wherefore dost thou thus leave me alone
in the combat, destitute of those sacred conso-
lations, which thou couldest easily shed abroad


e There was darkness over the whole his excellent Connection of the Sacred and land.] There are so many places in which Profane History of the World, has advanced gron signifies a particular country, and not some important considerations to prove, the whole earth, that I have chosen here to that it is at least very uncertain whether follow our translation ; and the rather, be- the Jewish months, according to the Mosaic cause the farther we suppose this darkness institution, began with a new moon, and to extend, the more unaccountable it is, consequently whether their passover, which that no Heathen writers should bave men was fixed to the fourteenth day of the first tioned it except Phlegon; if he is indeed month, must always happen at full moon. to be excepted. A darkness over the whole But be allows that, towards the decline of earth at once must have been preternatural their state, it did. Aod indeed Josephus, at any time ; and it is morally impossible, who, being a Jewish priest, is an unexthat a multitude of accounts of it should ceptiovable witness in this case, seems to not, even by a tradition of many hundred put it beyond all possibility of doubt; exvears, have been transmitted to posterity. pressly asserting, that the day of expiation, What is said of the Chinese chronicles men, and consequently their other feasts, were tioning it, must be very uncertain ; and as reckoned by the age of the moon. (Joseph. of Josephus, his omission of it, I think Antiq. lib. iii. cap. 10, § 3. Aixcin to Dr. More with reason accounts for it, by people sale chumv.) his unwillingness to mention a fact which g Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani ?] It is had so favourable au aspecton Christianity: evident these are Syro. Chaldaic, and not and the Jews would, no doubt, disguise it properly Hebrew words ; for in the original as much as they could, and perhaps might of Psal. xxii. 1, it is not, as here, 758 persuade him, and others, who heard the Sunpaw nooś, but 'snaiy nos report of it at some distance of time or place, that it was only a dark cloud, or a

inging. Dr. Edwards thinks our Lord inick mist, which the followers of Jesus had in his agony repeated the words twice with exaggerated, because it happened when some litrie variation, saying at one time, their Master died. Such representations Eloi, and at the other Eli

. This is possible; are exceeding natural to hearts corrupted and it it were otherwise, I doubt not but by infidelity.

Mark has given us the word exactly, and f As it was now full moon.] Mr. Shuck- Matthew a kind of contraction of it. See ford, in his prejace to the third volume of Edwards's Exercit. p. 193—196.

h Why



The Jews pretend that he was calling for Elijah. 415

upon my soul, and which thou knowest I have sEcT.

done nothing to forfeith? 47 [And] some of Jesus by the use of these words, borrowed them that stood (by) from the beginning of the twenty-second psalm, XXVII. that, said, [Behold] gave the spectators a useful hint that the whole 47 this man calleth for of it referred to him; and it might well have led Elias. [Mark XV. them to observe how many passages of it had 35.]

then a literal accomplishment in him: but if
this was any part of the design, it was not ap-
prehended by them; for the Jews took them in
a different sense, and some of them that stood by
there, hearing [that] sound of Eli, said in a
scornful and insulting manner, Behold, this
[man), who has been used to talk as if he had
earth and heaven at command, resolves to keep
up the air of the Messiah to the last, and there-
fore calls for Elijah bis forerunner, as if he had
any authority to bring that great prophet down

from paradise to his assistance JOHN XIX. 28. Af. Immediately after this doleful cry, Jesus John ter this, Jesus know. knowing that all the grievous and terrible things XIX. 28 nuw accomplished, that he had to surfer in the way to death, were now

the upon the point of being perfectly accomplished,

and finding himself parched with a violent
drought, as the consequence of what he had so
long endured both in mind and body, that the
scripture might be fulfilled (Psal. xxii. 15, and


h Why hast thou forsaken me?] The pious prehension of his constant favour, and high and judicious Lord Chief Justice Hale approbation of what he was now doing), has a strange reflection on these words; was as necessary as it was that Christ should We may (says he with reverence con suffer at all. For had God communicated ceive, that at the lime of this bitter cup, to his Son on the cross those strong consola. the soul of our blessed Redeemer was for tions which he has given to some of the the present overshadowed with so much martyrs in their tortures, all sense of pain, astonishment and sorrow, as to overpower and consequently all real pain, would have and cover the distinct sense of the reason been swalloved up; and the violence done of his sufferings, at least in some measure to his body, not affecting the soul, could not and degree." (Hale's Contemplations, Vol. properly have been called suffering. 1. p. 72.) But the sense given in the i and some of them that stood by, &c.) paraphrase is much more natural. Thus Whether this was, as Dr. Edwards (Exercit. in a most humble and affectionate man. p. 196—203), and Mr. Cracock (Harm. ner he reininds his heavenly Father, that he part ii. p. 256), suppose the misiake of was only by imputation a sinner, and had some Hellenist Jers, who did not underhimself done nothing to incur his displea- stand the Syro-Chaldaic language; or whesure.--I choose not, with Dr. More in ther it proceeded from bis being raised so his Thevlogical Works, p. 292), to render high, that, amidst the rude noise around it How far, or to what degree, hasl thou for- hiin, they did not distinctly hear; I do not saken me! because though this would be a pretend to say. Perhaps the malice of those just version of oras, the Greek word oveli, who did hear what he said, might misrewhich answers to it in Matthew, is not present his words, to prevent any serious liable to such ambiguity.-- conclude with reflections on the psalm from which they adding, that this interruption of a joyful were taken, and to expose him to farther sense of his Father's presence (though there contempt. was, and could not but be, a rational ap



29 Now there was




XVII. 48.




In his thirst, they give him vincgar to drink. SECT. Ixix. 21), where the Messiah is described as cry- the scripture might be ing out,

My tongue cleaveth to my jaws, and fulfilled, saith, I thirst. Joho

in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink," xix. 28. to shew that he endured all that had been fore

told concerning him, said, I thirst.
29 Now there was set, as usual on such occasions,

a vessel full of vinegar near the crossk; and im- set a vessel full of vi-
mediately upon his mentioning his thirst, one of way one of them ran,
them ran, and took a spunge, and filled [it] with and took a spunge,
this vinegar; and putting it round [a stalk of] and filled it with vine-
hyssop, which they had fastened on the top of a hyssop (on a reed),
kind of cane, or large reed, they put it up to his and put it
mouth, and in a contemptuous manner gave it month, (and gave him

to drink.] (MAT. him to drink. But the rest of them that stood XXVII.

bv, said, Let [him) alone, and let us see whether XV. 36.-1

Elijah, whom he has just been calling upon, The rest said, (Let 2:
wili coine and save him from the cross ; (and] in- lone, let us see whe-
deed he must take him down quickly, if at all. ther Elias will come
So little were their hearts affected with this pre- him down.]" (Mars
ternatural darkness, which had continued now XV.-36.
three hours; and thus cruelly did they insult
bim, even in his expiring moments, which had
been most inhuman, though he had really been
the vilest malefactor.

When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, JOHN XIX. 30.xix. 30 and thus had perfectly fulfilled the prophecies had received the vine

relating to his sufferings, he said, It is finished; gar, he said, It is finish-
the important work, for wbich I came into the ed.
world,' is now completed, the demands of the

law are satisfied, the justice of God is atoned, Luke and my sufferings are now at an end. And

And (when he had XXUI. crying out again with a great and strong voice, cried again with a loud 46 which plainly shewed that much of the strength voice, J he said, Father,

of nature was yet in bim; he said, with a lively into thy hands I com
faith and holy joy, Father, for so I will still call having said thus, he
thee, though that claim is thus derided by mine (John,bowed his head,
enemies, I am now coming to thee, and into and gave up the ghost.s
thy hands I commit my departing Spirit, deposit- MARK XV. 57. JOHN
ing it with thee as a sacred trust, which I am XIX.-30.]
confident thou wilt receive and keep. And
when he had said thus, declining his head, he
voluntarily dismissed or delivered up his Spirit,
and expired'.




k A vessel full of vinegar.] It is well torture would naturally make their known that vinegar and water (which mix- thirsty. tuse was called posca) was the common i He dismissed or delivered up his Spirit, drink of the Roman soldiers : perhaps there- and expired.] The evangelists use different fore this vinegar was set here for their use, words in expressing our Lord's death, which or for that of the crucified persons, whose la little wonder that our translators render




Jesus disinisses his spirit, and the earth trembles.

417 Mat. XXVII. 51. And behold, God by a very awful and mira- Sect. And behoid (Luke, culous interposition, avowed the relation which _cxci. darkened), the vail of his Son claimed, and evidently appeared to the temple was rent in take the charge of that dear and excellent Spirit XXVII. twain (LUKE, in the which Jesus so solemnly recommended to him:51 to the bottom; and the for immediately upon his death, [while] the sun earth did quakc, and was still darkened, as was observed before (ver. the rocks rent; (MARK 45), the veil of the temple, which separated be

tween the holy and the most holy place, though
made of the richest and strongest tapestry, was
miraculously rent in two in the midst, from the
top to the very bottom; so that while the priest
was ministering at the golden altar, it being the
time of evening sacrifice, the sacred oracle was
laid open to full view: God thereby declaring,
as it were, the abolition of the whole Mosaic
ritual, which depended on a distinction between
those two parts of the temple; and intimating
that a passage was opened into the most holy
place by the blood of Jesus, which was now
poured out on mount Calvary, And at the same
time, to increase the terror, the earth trembled
even to the very spot of ground on which the

temple stood, and several of the rocks in the 52 And the graves neighbouring parts were torn asundern; And 52



in the same manner, he yielded, or gave up with a majesty and dignity never known,
the ghost. Mark and Luke say E TIVENTE or to be known, in any other death; dya
he expired; John, Jagodwxt to treuuce, he ing, if I may so express it, like the Prince
yielded up his Spirit; but Matthew's lan- of life.
guage is yet more singular, aPnXE TO TU VEULE, m While the priest was ministering at
he dismissed his Spirit (as the same word the golden altar, a'c.] This being so high
apimet is used, Mat. xiii. 36. Mark iv. a day, it is probablc that Caiaphas himself
S6. xi. 6, and elsewhere). Now this cx might now be perforining the solemn act of
pression seems admirably to suit our Lord's burning incense just before the veil; which
words, John X. 18. No man taketh my life if he did, it is inexpressibly astonishing
from me, but I lay it down of myself, &c. that his obdurate heart should not be im-
(sce the paraphrase and note there, p. 80), pressed with su awful and significant a
shewing, as the strong cry which so much phenomenon. There is no room to doubt,
impressed the centurion did, that he died by but many of the other priests, who had a
the voluntary act of his own mind, accord- hand in Christ's death, saw the pieces of
ing to the power received from the Father, the veit; which, considering its texture,
and in a way peculiar to himself, by which and the other circumstances, must as fully
he alone, of all meo that ever existed, could convince them of the reality of this ex-
have continued alive even in the greatest traordinary fact as if they had actually been
tortures, as long as he pleased, or have re. present when it was reni.
tired from the body whenever he thought n The rocks were torn asunder.] Mr.
fit. Which view of the case, by the way, Fleming tells us (in his Christology, Vol. 11.
suggests an illustration of the love of Christ p. 97, 98), that a deist lately travelling
manifested in his death, beyond what is through Palestine was converted, by view-
commonly observed; inasmuch as he did ing one of these rocks, which still remains
not use this power to quit bis body, as soon torn us under, not in the weakest place, but
as ever it was fastened to the cross, leav cross the veins; a plain proof that it was
ing only an insensible corpse to the crueity done in a supernatural manner. ---Sandys,
of his murderers, but continued his abode in his excellent Travels, p. 104, has given
in it, with a steady resolution, as long as an accurate description and delineation of
it was proper; and then retired from it this fissure; and Mr. Maundrel in his


« FöregåendeFortsätt »