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Jesus appears to two disciples as they go to Emmaus,

the soldiers to testify a lie, the most to his dishononr of any that
hell could invent. And surely, had not Christ been kept out of
their sight and power, they would, not withstanding all this, have
endeavoured to bring him down to the tomb again, on the very
same principles on which they would have slain Lazarus after
his resurrection. (John xii. 10.) So true does it appear, in this
renewed and unequalled instance, that if men hear not Moses and
the prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from
the dead. (Luke xvi. 31.)
No question but these very men, when pressed with the evi-
dences of Christ's resurrection, answered, as succeeding infidels
have presumptuously done, “that he should have appeared to
them, if he expected they should believe he was risen.” But
what assurance can we have that the same prejudices which over-
bore the testimony of the soldiers, might not also have resisted even
the appearance of Christ himself Or, rather, that the obstinacy
which led them to overbear conscience in one instance, might
not have done it in the other Justly therefore did God deny
what wantonness, and not reason, might lead them to demand :
justly did he give them up to dishonour their own understand-
ings, as well as their moral character, by this mean and ridi-

15 culous tale, which brought men to testify what was done while

they were asleep.
The most that common sense could make of their report, had
they deserved the character of honest men, would have been, that
they knew nothing of the matter. And we have a thousand times
more reason to admire the condescension of God, in sending his
apostles to these wicked rulers with such additional proofs and
messages, than to censure his providence in preventing Christ's
public appearance. May he deliver us from the treachery and
corruption of our own hearts May he give us a holy tenderness
and integrity of soul, that we may see truth wheresoever it is,
and may follow it whithersoever it leads us; lest God should choose
our delusions, and give us up in his righteous judgment to believe
a lie, and to think ourselves wise in that credulous infidelity which
is destroying its ten thousands amongst us!


Christ appears to the two disciples on their way to Emmaus, and, having opened the scriptures to them, makes himself known in breaking of bread. Luke XXIV. 13–33.−

j. LUKE XXIV. 13. o - E are now to give some farther account of Aod. .

Luke that fact which was hinted at in the close saune Xxiv. 13. - of

And enters into conversation with them as a stranger.

same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.

14 And they talked together of all these things which had happened.

15 And it came to pass, that whic they communed together, and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.

16 But their eyes were holden, that they should not know him.

of the preceding section, of our Lord's appear-
ing to two of his disciples on a journey: and the

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case was this. Behold (for it is a very observable Luke story), two of them were travelling that very day XXIV.

on which Jesus rose from the dead to a village 13

called Emmaus, which was about sixty furlongs,
or somewhat more than seven miles, from Je-
coursed together of all these wonderful and im-
portant things which had lately happened, and
which could not but lie with great weight on
their spirits.
talked about the sufferings and death of their
beloved Lord, and the report which had been
spread that morning of his resurrection, and ar-
gued the point together with visible marks of
the greatest concern", Jesus also himself drew
near, as one come from Jerusalem who was go-
ing the same way, and travelled on with them.

But that they might not presently discover 16

who he was, and be prevented by this means
from expressing their own thoughts with free-
dom, he appeared to them in something of a
different form and habit from what he usually
wore (compare Mark xvi. 12, p. 454); and
besides what there might be of an uncommon
vigour and majesty in his countenance, their
eyes were so affected and restrained by a secret
but powerful influence on them, that they did
not look upon him with that attention and re-
collection which might, have been expected ;
so that, on the whole, though they were some
considerable time in his company, yet they did
not know him ".


And as they walked along, they dis-14

And it came to pass, that as they 15

a Argued the point together.] The word ww.goslav (as Mr. West observes) signifies to discuss, eramine, or inquire together; and it appears from the connection, that as they were discoursing on the sufferings, and death, and resurrection of Jesus, the scope of their inquiry was how to reconcile these events with what had becn foretold concerning the Messiah, which, by the message that the women had but just before brought from the angels, they were particularly called to remember. (Compare Luke xxiv. 6, 7, p. 447, and xviii. 31–33, p. 132.) Accordingly when Jesus had inquired, ver, 17, What arguments are these that ye are debating one with another 2 (for so Mr. West would render it) this is the point he took occasion to illustrate and explain (ver. 26, 27.) by shewing them it was necessary, in accomplishment of

what was foretold, that the Messiah should
suffer these things, and so should enter into
his glory, and with this view he erpounded
to them in all the scriptures the things
concerning himself. (See West's Observ.
p. 69–73.)
b They did not know him.] A different
habit, and their having no expectation of
seeing him, might, in part, prevent their
knowing him; yet, as it is said their eyes
were restrained from knowing him, l am
ready to think there was something more
than this, even some particular agency
of God, to divert their eyes from looking
stedfastly upon him, or so to affect their
memories as to render them incapable of
recollecting who he was. Compare Gen.
xxi. 19. Numb. xxii. 31. and 2 Kings
vi. 17, 18.
c One

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They tell him the concern they were under about Jesus,

And he joined himself to them, as it were by accident, and, after the usual salutation, said to

Luke them, May I inquire what are these matters xxiv. which you are conferring upon between yourselves,

20 several months and years.

17 as you walk, and about which you seem to be so

much concerned for I perceive you to be very
earnest in discourse, and see that you appear
with a sorrowful countenance.
And one [of the two), whose name was Cleo-
pas", answered and said to him, You seem to be
come from Jerusalem, and though you may
perhaps be no more than a stranger there, yet
is it possible that you should be at any loss to
know what is the subject of our conversation,
and what it is that gives us such concern ? Are
wou the only person that sojourns in Jerusalem,
and is unacquainted with the extraordinary
things" which have been done there in so public
a manner within these few days, that they en-
gross the conversation of the whole city ?

19 And he said to them, What are those things that

you refer to And they said to him, Those that
relate to Jesus, who was called the Nazarene ; a
man who was a prophet of the most illustrious
character, and greatly powerful both in actions
and in words; for he wrought the most astonish-
ing miracles, and taught the most instructive
and excellent doctrine, which raised him to the
highest honour before God, and all the people of
Israel, among whom he publicly appeared for
And have you not
then heard, how our chief priests and rulers deli-
wered him up to the Roman governor, and com-
pelled him by their importunity to pass a sen-
tence of death upon him, and so crucified him
And this must needs be
an unspeakable affliction to us, who are two of
his disciples: for we not only thought him a
Messenger from God, as the old prophets were,
but we verily hoped that he had been the Messiah
himself, even the very person who should have
delivered Israel from the power of their o

17 And he said unto them, What manner of communications are these that ye bave one to another, as ye walk, and are sad 2

18 And the one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answering, said unto him, Art thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in thesc days?

19 And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet, mighty in deed and word before God, and all the people :

21 between two robbers 2

c One of the two chose name was Cleopas.] It has already been observed that Cleopas was the same with Alpheus, the father of James the less and Judas, who were two of the apostles ; (Luke vi. 15, 16.) See notee on John xiv. 22, p. 309, and note b on John xix. 25, p. 413.-Some suppose that the other was Luke; but Dr. Lightfoot endeavours to prove it was

20 And how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him :

21 But we trusted that it had been he which should have redecimed Isracl: and be . side

Peter: (see note f on Mat. xxviii. 15,
p. 454.) It seems more probable that he
was not one of the apostles, but might
possibly be one of the number of the
seventy, whose name is uncertain.
d Are you the only person that sojourns in
Jerusalem, and is unacquainted, &c.] This
is the emphatical import of the original,
av 1.073' Trociott; xz ex ty, w;, &c.

e And

Who had been crucified, and was now reported to be alive.

ide, all hio, today is and have established the long-expected kingdom

the third day since these things were done.

of God among us : but now we are ready to

give up all our hopes; for we have seen him on
a cross instead of a throne : and besides all these xxiv.
melancholy occurrences], though he had given 21

us intimations of his rising again on the third
day, yet this is now the third day since these
things were done, or since he was condemned

22 Yea, and certain womcn also of our company made us astonishca, which were early at the sepulchre:


and crucified, and we have not yet received any
convincing evidence of his being risen from the
It is true indeed, some women among us, 22
of our society, have greatly surprised us with an
account they brought this morning ; who tell
us, they were very early at the sepulchre in which

he was laid, with an intent to embalm him ;

23 And when they

found not his body, in hast they came, saying. *W*Y " hote that they had also

seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive. 24 And certain of then which were with us, went to the sepul

chre, and found it even so as the women had

e And say that they saw also a vision of angels.] According to the order in which the story is digested in the preceding section the women did not come to the disciples with the report of what they had seen between the appearance of the angels and that of Christ to them ; but had first scen both, and therefore must undoubtedly imave mentioned both : it may however be concluded, that (as Luke says on their relating what they had seen, ver, 11, their words seemed to them as an idle tale, and they believed them not) these travellers might apprehend that what the women took for an appear. ance of Christ was at most but a vision of angels (as some imagined with respect to Peter, Acts xii. 15); and what is added in the neat verse, with relation to the men there spoken of [but him they did not see], may perhaps imply that the women pretended also to have seen Jesus himself But I am now inclined to acquicsce in Mr. West's solution of this difficulty, who supposes it was Joanna, and the other women with her, who only saw the angels and did not see Jesus, that came with this report to the disciples; who, though the appearance of the angels to them at the sepulchre was after the two Maries and Salome were gone from thence, yet brought the news of it to the disciples before Mary Magdalene, and those to whom Jesus appeared, arrived with the account that they had seen the Lord. Vol. v. 11.

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to acquaint us with it ; and be

sides this they say, that they also saw a vision, or
apparition, of angels", who affirmed him to be
alive again, with some other strange and extra-
ordinary, circumstance.
too who were with us, of our own company,
went themselves to the sepulchre, and found [it]
to be even so as the women had said, that is, that
the body was gone, and saw the funeral linen


For notwithstanding it is certain that Mary Magdalene on Christ's appearing to her went and acquainted the disciples with it (Mark xvi. 10, and John xx. 18), yet, as they might be now assembled together by Peter and John at a different place from that where she met with Peter before, it is no way improbable that by Mary's going to Peter's lodgings, who was now gone to meet the disciples elsewhere, or by some other accident unknown to us, Joanna and those with her might get thither first with the report of their having seen a vision of angels, who had declared that Jesus was alive. Immediately on hearing which, some men (of whom it is probable Peter might be the first) went away to the sepulchre, and found things in the same order as the tromen said, but had no sight of Jesus. On whose return these two disciples that were going to Emmaus left the company ; and though as they were setting out some might inform them that a report was brought by Mary Magdalene and some other women that they had seen the Lord, they might be as backward to believe it, and as ready to impute it to the power of itnagination, as those in whose presence the report was made.— I am obliged to Mr. West for this view of the matter, which represents it in a clearer light than any other scheme proposed before. (See West's Observ, p. 106, 107.)

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And, not having found his body there, they came 23

Nay, and some men 24


He opens what the scriptures had foretold of Christ;

so laid in order there; but him they did not see :

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though we are informed that since we left the
company some women have come to them, who

xxiv. affirm that he has actually appeared to them

2 himself, and declared that he was risen, and

would shew himself to his disciples: but still we
have received no certain proof of it ourselves,
so that as yet we know not what to think of it,
and cannot but be under great concern about it.

25 And upon this our Lord, without discovering

who he was, said to them with some warmth, O
ye thoughtless [creatures, and slow of heart to
believe all the things that the prophets have so
frequently and clearly spoken f; which, if you
had attentively considered and believed them,

26 would have prevented this surprise Was it

not necessary, in order to accomplish those sacred
oracles, “which testify before-hand the suffer-
ings of Christ, and the glory that should follow”
(1 Pet. i. 11), that the Messiah should suffer all
these things, at which vou are so much stumbled,
and [so] by his rising from the dead should enter


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And hereupon beginning from the writings of Moses, and supporting his discourse with the authority of all the prophets o, he interpreted to them, in a much clearer light than they had ever seen them in before, the principal things which

had said ; but
they saw not.


25 Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believc all that the prophets have spoken 1

26 Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?

f 0 thoughtless creatures, &c.] The word aroslot is by no means of so bad a sound as that of fools, by which we translate it: (see note in on Mat. v. 22, Vol. VI. p. 208.) Yet, as Dr. Bullock justly observes (in his Windication of Christ's Resurrection, p. 174), if the prophecies of the Old Testament had been (as Mr. Colins pretends) only allegorical, there could not have been room for such a heavy charge of stupidity against these disciples for not understanding them. It is, by the way, very weak in Mr. Collins, and some other deists, to urge the slotoness of Christ's friends to believe his resurrection, as an argument that the proofs of it were defective: on the contrary, as Bishop Chandler well replies (in his Windcation of Christianity, p. 45, 46), their believing afterwards carries the greater wcight ; for it removes all suspicion of a

collusion between Christ and them in his

life-time; and also implies an impartial
examination of the fact, and the strength
of those proofs that vanquished this incre-
& Beginning from Moses, and all the pro-

27. And beginning
at Moses, and all the
prophets, he expound-
ed unto them in all
the scriptures, the
things concerning him-

phets.] It is no way necessary (with Mr. Mede in his ingenious discourse on these words) to suppose that Christ's sufferings, resurrection, and eraltation, are each of them distinctly foretold in each of those parts of the sacred writings which are mentioned here. It is enough, if Moses gives some intimations concerning him, which succeeding prophets carry on; and if, when all their testimonies are taken together, all these events are expressed by some one cr other of them. It was very unbecoming the character of an honest writer to represent our Lord as here attempting to prove his resurrection from scripture; which Mr. Collins pretends to have been the case. The precise point in view plainly was to convince them that there was no reason to be scandalized at the death of one whom they took to be the Messiah; nor in general to look on the report of his resurrection as a monstrous and incredible tale, But that he was actually risen was to be proved another wav; which accordingly our Lord immediately used by discovering himself to them.


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