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ings, every arrangement, every circumstance, will lead you to recognize the presence of death. It is the time to die.
When will men find time to think of death and eternity? What occurrences of their life call them naturally to reflections upon Jesus Christ as their Saviour, and to seek their comfort by the ex. ercise of faith and hope in him? There is a time for all things. This is their motto. But when is there time for prayer to God; for confessing their sins, and imploring pardon ; for giving thanks to the giver of innumerable mercies, and commending themselves in humble confidence to preserving and redeeming love?
THE LONG ETERNITY.
Time rolls on! centuries glide away! Ere long, we shall look back from our remote position in the eternal world, as the associates of Noah now look back to the scenes they witnessed while on earth. Think of those spirits now in prison ; think what must be their reflections in view of the fact, that they have bartered eternal joy for the sins of a moment on earth! Oh! how must remorse prey upon them as they at this moment lift up their voices in woe, exclaiming, “ The harvest is passed, the summer is ended, and we are not saved.”
And is it so ? Have thousands of years already elapsed, while they still continue the victims of sin ? So says unerring truth. They wearied out the long-suffering of God, and grieved away his Spirit. And shall eternity still roll on while they remain in their abode of sorrow? Nothing can be more sure. Their own hand has planted thorns in the pillow upon which they will for ever in vain seek repose.
And is this our danger? Are we exposed to so fearful a doom? Verily,” saith the Scripture to us, "unless ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.” Yes, very soon the graves, in which our bodies have mouldered to the dust, will disappear under the influence of time. Centuries will pass away, and not an individual shall know our names; not a vestige shall remain of our ever having existed. The world shall be busy; the hum of business and the notes of pleasure shall be heard. The sun shall shine; the rain shall fall; The storm shall rage; but we shall be far, far away-the veteran souls of many centuries. Oh! what is life, when we look forward to explore those regions where we must for ever dwell? What are earth's joys, when we think of heaven's undying glory? What are earth's trials, when we think of banishment eternal from the presence of God? But heaven's gates are now open wide. Heaven's smiling fields now invite our steps. The angels' cordial wel. come now bids us enter. The Father pleads; the Saviour invites; the Spirit strives. Oh! let us all hear, and accept, and live.
DISTRESS IN IRELAND.
[The following letter, lately received from a devoted clergyman, now resident at Ventry, in Ireland, who was formerly a Popish priest, gives but too true a picture, not only of the distress which prevails in that country, but of the peculiar pressure with which the general distress falls on the converts from Popery. They claim our special sympathy in this time of trial. We must give that sympathy, not in words only, but in our prayers, and in our money as far as we are able. The Editor will thankfully forward any sums to Mr. Moriarty that may be entrusted to him for this purpose.] My Dear Miss M.,- I return you my grateful thanks for your Christian sympathy under our present difficulties. I do not exaggerate when I say, that another month passed as I have spent the last, would put me out of this place, or out of this present evil world. I could not possibly stand it. I had no money, public or private, and my people were starving. They were tempted, too, by the support offered and freely given, through an association lately established here by the priests, with the view of seducing our people. They also promise to give them free passages, as emigrants, in the spring. This is strong temptation to a poor man who has nothing in hand to keep his family from starving, and who has no prospect of being able to live in this country, after the destruction of the potatoes. You know very well that whatever distress we have had to bear during the summer months, we were relieved heretofore when the people were able to go to their potato grounds, and we enjoyed comparative ease and independence for months after; and had the potato crop prospered this year, our people would have been above want. But the Almighty has, for his own wise purposes, willed it otherwise, and we are in a most trying position. It went to my heart yesterday,
hear that your old friend Paddy Sanders, and family, had gone to bed the night before without having eaten anything since their scanty morning meal; but such cases are common amongst us at present. The people have barely existed all the last week on such wretched potatoes as they could get out of the ground; but now they know not what to do, and the prospect before us for the winter is most discouraging—in fact, it is awful. I am not without hope, thank God, though in fear and trembling. My little flock at Donquin is truly to be pitied. Distress in any shape, at this season, is so unusual, that we are the more at a loss what to do. It is most painful to see crowds of people returning from Dingle to the remotest part of the district, with their scanty supply of Indian meal. They are glad to succeed in getting half a stone, after waiting long, and crushing in the crowd, and often they return without any. Our poor people have no chance among them. They would not only be insulted, but pulled about, and crushed to death perhaps, there is
such tearing for it. A woman, of my Donquin flock, sunk down in a faint, after having made her way through the crowd;' and some have to come for it almost every day in the week, eight or nine miles We must, under such circumstances, provide meal ourselves; and sell, at least, to our own people, and at a great loss, to enable them to provide barely sufficient food. I have, for this purpose, taken some tons-from our Relief Committee, and from merchants at Tralee. One great source of my sad state of mind was, to be obliged to take this on my own credit, and to have no way of meeting it, and the every.day increasing distress of the whole
before us. May our God give us wisdom and a blessing; and repay you ten fold, in Christ, for your sympathy and aid.
Yes, he wept over Jerusalem, but they cared not for his tears. And what does this teach us? That some may share a Saviour's tears who never profit by a Saviour's blood. It shews that his pity for sinners is far beyond their pity for themselves. O Christ. less sinner! these tears of the Saviour speak to thee. They ask, Do you know to what a hell you are going ? and what a heaven you are losing? You may be merry now, but so was Jerusalem then- and yet its mirth made Jesus weep the more. You may be light-hearted and lovely to your friends—and so were many of those whose dead souls and dark hereafter made Jesus weep. You may
be in the midst of mercy, and surrounded with the means of grace—and so were they—but such mercy and grace rejected, only made the Saviour's tears flow faster. And you may have some interest about the Saviour: on some holiday, you may join the company, and shout Hosanna—but, O! if you despise his blood, your cup of wrath will be embittered by a pitying Saviour's slighted tears. You have never got such love to your dying Saviour as to come to a communion, and remember his dying love.
O! you who are not moved by à Saviour's blood, will you not be melted by a Saviour's tear? That tear fell frown an eye which had looked into eternity, and knew the worth of souls. It fell from an eye, O sinner! which would glisten with joy if it saw thy dry lids moistening, and thy dry heart melting-an eye which would sparkle with affection over thee if it saw thee weeping for thyself, and weeping for the Pierced One.
ADVICE TO THE LABOURING FARMER,
FOR IMPROVING AND INCREASING HIS MANURE AND HIS
PRODUCE AT LITTLE EXPENSE.
The harvest being got in, the time is coming to prepare for the dung-heap. The stocky farmer can buy books, and find time to read them. He can dig tanks, and use every means of turning all his materials to the best advantage. For him these suggestions are not intended; but for the numerous class of cultivators, who have barely capital enough to work their land, and know the difficulty of raising money to pay wages, rent, and taxes.
Let these, however, not be discouraged. The late Mr. Coke, of Norfolk, (afterwards Lord Leicester,) came into possession of lands which would not grow wheat, and let at about 3s. an acre ; but lived to see those same lands, by good management, average four to five quarters of wheat per acre, and other crops in proportion.
As the farmer depends on his manures for heavy crops of all kinds, he may lay it down as a maxim that
LOSS OF MANURE IS LOSS OF CROP,
And will, therefore, be glad to learn that at very small cost his dung-heap may be doubled or trebled in quantity and quality.
It stands to reason, that the excrement of every animal should be the best manure for that same animal's food; because it returns to the soil just what was drawn from it. Therefore human soil is the best for corn, and the articles eaten by man; and cattle dung, &c., for grass and cattle food. But it is not so well known that the dung is the undigested part of the food; the digested part going to the blood, and coming off in the urine. Hence the urine is the nourishing part, the essence of manure: yet the farmer attends chiefly to the cattle dung and straw, neglecting the urine, and still more the privy soil, though these are the best manures he has. A cow may yield, on an average, nine gallons of urine
week, containing eight or nine pounds of solid manure, of the best quality, worth 2d. a pound; and a horse not very different in value. may estimate their urine, one with another, at a full shilling a week each, if all could be collected: that is, 52s. a head for the year's urine. But it cannot be all collected, as some is droppd in the field, where it does harm in dry weather, burning up the grass by its great strength. The above, however, is the lowest estimate of its value; other experiments give 14 gallons per week, yielding near 20lbs. solid, or 3s. 4d. a week, equal to £8 13s. per head per annum; the truth probably lies between the two. Again, a pint of urine should raise a pound of corn; or 10lbs. to the gallon. Hence 48 gallons should produce a quarter of wheat.
Manure may be considered to consist of three different principles: 1. Humus, or vegetable mould, to feed the plant and enrich the soil.
2. Ammoniacal vapour, to force the soil.
Distinctions which, though not unobjectionable, will give some intelligible notion of the purposes and effects of the different materials, hitherto not generally attended to.
TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY. Save every drop of urine; it is the very essence of manure; too strong to use alone, as is seen by the spots where it drops in dry weather; but it works excellently with vegetable matter of all sorts, and prepares them to enrich the soil, whilst they bring it down to a proper strength. Urine contains salts and ammonia, and is very effectual in exciting vegetation. It should be fermented, either with vegetable matter or water, before using it for manure.
Straw contains salts and vegetable matter; and straw, worked with urine, both forces the crop and feeds it, or enriches the soil.
Some farmers have much of their straw eaten, to convert it into dung; and if they take care of the urine, this improves it for
But if they run the urine to waste, it carries off much of the salts; and the straw becomes weaker for manure after eating than before.
Save not only all the urine, but also the privy soil. This is worth five times its weight of cattle dung. It is convenient to carry to heaps of weeds, straw, &c., in distant fields, as one load of human privy soil and urine will work five or six loads of weeds, &c., and make excellent manure. Straw, stalks, and vegetable matters, contain the salts and humus; but not the ammoniacal vapour, which comes chiefly from animal matter, especially urine.
Cabbage stumps, and other hard stalks, difficult to ferment, may be first worked with lime, or lime and salt, and thrown on the heap when rotten, as lime and weeds, &c. kill each other.
But quick lime must never be mixed with dung, as it drives off the ammo. niacal vapour, and so do wood ashes, when fresh.
And here the farmer should bear in mind that vegetable matters ferment sour, and are of little use alone; whilst animal matters, especially urine, produce ammonia in fermentation, which is fixed by the vegetable acid, correcting it in return and rendering it fertilising. Lime will also correct the acid and make it fertilising; but ammonia is still necessary to excite vegetation.
TO INCREASE THE QUANTITY, The land is enriched by human, or vegetable mould: it is this which makes garden soil so much superior to that of fields.
Therefore, do not burn weeds or other vegetable matters, more than is needful, but make them pay their footing. Cut your weeds and hedge-sides before seeding, as much as possible; but if you have amongst them seeds or roots, which will grow, kill them with lime and salt. Four gallons (30 to 40 pounds), and eight gallons