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Def. 11. An Adverb is a word used to modify the signification of a verb, an adjective, or another modifier
EXAMPLES—[He writes] wellvery [good boys.]
Def. 12. A Preposition is a word used to express a relation of other words to each other.
EXAMPLES-[moves] in (way]—[Books are] on the table.)
Def. 13. A Conjunction is a word used to introduce a sentence, or to connect other words.
EXAMPLES - And can I leave thee]—[Henry] and [Homer came.]
Def. 14. An Exclamation is a word used to express a sudden emotion.
XAMPLES-O! [Liberty)--Ah! [the treasure.] Note-Words are often used for rhetorical purposes merely -having no direct, grammatical construction. "Hence,
Def. 15. Words of Euphony are words used only for the sake of sound.
OBS. They are used1. To render other words emphatic. As, “.John and Homer, and even Honry, came to the Lecture."
“ The moon herself is lost in heaven.”-Ossian. 2. To introduce a sentenceAs," Come, pass along." "Now then, we are prepared to take up the main question.” 66 There are no idlers here."
3. To preserve the Rhythm in a line in poetryAs," I sit me down a pensive hour to spend."
PHRASES. A Phrase is two or more words properly arranged, not constituting a distinct proposition.
CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASES. Rem.-Phrases are used as substitutes for nouns, adjectives, and adverbs: or, they are independent in their construction. Hence,
Prin. Phrases are distinguished as
1. Substantive. 3. Adverbial.
4. Independent. Def. 16. A Substantive Phrase is a phrase used as the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.
EXAMPLE-To obey God [is the highest duty of man.]
Def. 17. An Adjective Phrase is a phrase used to qualify a noun or pronoun.
EXAMPLE--[The lips] of the wise [dispense knowledge.]
Def. 18. An Adverbial Phrase is a phrase used to modify the signification of a verb, adjective, or adverb. EXAMPLE--[God moves) in a mysterious way.
Def. 19. An Independent Phrase is a phrase not joined to any other word going before in construction.
EXAMPLEThe hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises.]
PRIN.—By their forms, phrases are classified as-Preposetional, Infinitive, Participial, and Independent.
DEF. 19, a.--A Prepositional Phrase is introduced by a preposition having a noun, or a word used for a noun, as its object of relation. As, “ In a mysterious way."
DEF. 19, b.---An Infinitive Phrase is introduced by the preposition to having a verb as its object of relation, As, To love
to study--to be diligent. - Der. 19, C.--A Participial Phrase is introduced by a parti. ciple, and commonly has one or more adjuncts, or objects of an action. As, Scaling yonder peak--wheeling near its brow.
DEF. 19, d.--An Independent Phrase is introduced by a noun or pronoun followed by a participle depending upon it.
As, John having lost one lesson, the prize was given to Henry.
SENTENCES. A sentence is an assemblage of words, so arranged as to express a fact.
ANALYSIS OF A SENTENCE.
1. The Principal parts.
2. The Adjuncts. Def. 20. The principal parts of a sentence, are those words which are necessary to express the unqualified assertion.
EXAMPLES-God moves-He plants footsteps [and] rides.
The Subject, | The Predicate, / The Object. NOTE.-Every sentence must have a subject and predicate, expressed or understood.
Def. 21. The Subject of a sentence, is that, concerning which something is asserted.
Obs. It is always a noun, or a word, phrase, or sentence, used for a noun. It may be
1. A Word--as, God exists knowledge is power--man lives-science promotes happiness birds fly-John* saws wood.
2. A Phrase-To be, contents his natural desire to do good, is the duty of all men—his being a minister, prevented his rising to civil power,
" Compelling children to sit erect for a long time, is an evil practice.”—Cutter. 3. A Sentence" That all men are created equal, is a self-evident truth."
Def. 22. The Predicate of a sentence, is the word or words that express what is affirmed of the subject.
OBS.It is always a verb, and may have added to it another
* In the example, “ John saws wood,” John is the subject, because that word is the name of the person concerning whom something is asserted.
verb, a pronoun, a participle, an adjective, a noun, or a preposition.
1. A Verb only-John saws* wood—God excists—birds fly-he rides--Ani. mals run.
2. A Verb and VerbmI shall go–I do remember. 3. A Verb and a Participle-John was injured—the house is being built -the legions were bought and sold-James is improving.
4. A Verb and an Adjective—They looked beautiful-he became poor. soldiers waxed valiant-John is sleepy.
4. A Verb and a Noun God is love-Friend is treasure.
5. A Verb and a Preposition—"Its idle hopes are o'er"_the mountebank was laughed at.”
Obs.--The logical predicate of a sentence properly includes the object; but in a treatise on Grammar, it is proper to treat of the object as a distinct part of the sentence.
Def. 23. The Object of a sentence, is the word or words on which the action, asserted by the predicate, terminates.
OBS.—It is always a noun, or a word, phrase, or sentence, used for a noun.
be 1. A Word-John saws woudt-i have seen him feed the hungry-He saith among the trumpets, Ha! ha!”
2. A Phrase I regret his being absent-his being a minister prevented his rising to civil power.
3. A Sentence- And God said, Let there be light-The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God I thought I heard a voice cry, SLEEP NO MORE.
OBs. 1.-A Prepositional Phrase always has an object of relation expressed or understood.
EXAMPLES—In a mysterious way. We are fond of walking-and of studying grammar-Boys love to skate~We love to picase our parents.
Obs. 2.-When the object of relation is a transitive verb or a participle, it commonly has an object of an action.
ExamPLES—We love to please our parents—We are fond of studying grammar.
OBS. 3.- A Participial Phrase has an object of an action, when the participle is transitive,
ExamPLES-Scaling yonder peak-Mr. Hammond, having acquired a fortune, has retired from business,
* " Saws" is the grammatical predicate of “John,” because that woru denotes the act of John. “Saws wood” is the logičal predicate, because those two words express the complete proposition.
† In the example, " John saws wood,” woud is the object of saws, because tha: word is the name of the thing on which the action expressed by “saws' terminates.
THE ETYMOLOGICAL CHART.
(See page 110.) This Chart presents, at one view, the entire etymology of the English language. It is useful chiefly in reviews and in etymological parsing.
The large edition of the Chart 44 inches diameter, may be used more profitably, as, with it, the whole class may follow the reciting pupil-all having their attention directed to the same thing, at the same time. In the absence of a large Chart, the small ones may be used-each student using his
It will be noticed, that the Chart does not give the definitions of the classes and modifications of words; but simply presents the principles of etymology; showing, for example,
That a "Sentence” consists of “Principal Parts,” and may have “Adjụncts.” That the Principal Parts of a sentence must have a “Subject,” a “Predicate,” and (if Transitive) an “ Object.” That the Subject may be a “Word," a "Phrase," or a “Sentence." That if the Subject is a Word, it is a “Noun” or “Pronoun”-if a Noun, it is “Common" or “Proper"—if a Pronoun, it is “ Personal," " Relative," " Interrogative," or “ Adjective." That the Noun or Pronoun must be of the “ Neuter," “Feminine,” or “Masculine” Gender-of the “First,” “Second," or “Third” Person-of the "Singular” or “Plural” Number—and that it must be in the "Nominative" Case.
If the Subject is a “Phrase,” it is a “Substantive” Phrase—and may be (in'form) “Prepositional,” “Participial,” “Infinitive,” or Independent”—and may be “Transitive” or “ Intransitive."
If the Subject is a “Sentence,” it is a “Substantive” Sentence---and may be “Simple” or “Compound," " Transitive" or "Intransitive."
Thus, a comparison of the Chart with the General Principles on page 111, will readily suggest to the skilful teacher the proper method of using it in review.
The proper use of the Chart in Etymological parsing, is illustrated by " Exercises," p. 116.