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"We use Rice's gold pens."

Here the word "gold," being the name of a metal, is a Noun. But, because it is here used to indicate a





The word the 's) is a name-hence a Noun. But, because it is here used to indikind of pen-not with respect to ownership, for Rice does it, but [partly with respect to its shape or size, and also] with respect to the manufactory at which it was made, and, by inference, the quality-it is an Adjective. And this last, being its principal office, is the office in which it is recognizedand we parse it accordingly. The Noun becomes an Adjective. Nor-composed of not and other-retains the offices of its

kind of pen [not with respect to its shape or size, but] with respect to not own its material, it is an Adjective. And this last, being its principal office, is the office in which it is recognized-and we parse it accordingly. The Noun becomes an Adjective.


"Nor will I at my humble lot repine."

Here "nor"-being used to modify "repine"-is an Adverb of Negation. But, because it introduces a Sentence, additional to a former Sentence, it is a Conjunction: like many other conjunctions, it indicates the office of the sentence which it introduces, making it negative. OBS.-Some words perform an individual office, and at the same time a representative office.

1. Bring hither that book. 2. Bring to me that book. 3. Bring me that book.

In the examples above, "Hither" modifies "bring;" hence, it is an Adverb.

Equivalent sentences, each correct.

"To me" modifies "bring;" hence, it is an Adverb.

[To] "me" modifies "bring;" hence, it is an Adverb.

"Me," in the third example, as a representative for the Phrase (to me) of which it is a part, is an Adverb. But, being used for a Noun, it is a Pronoun; and, as the object of the phrase, is in the Objective Case.


"The captain had gone below."

.Shows a relation of "had gone" to deck understood. Hence, it is a Preposition.

"Below [deck]" Modifies "had gone" (denoting place). Hence, it is an Adverb.



As a representative of its (Adverbial) Phrase, modifies "had gone" (denoting place). Hence, it is an Adverb.

For farther illustrations, see Obs. 5 and 6, page 95.

Rem.-A careful examination of the genius of the English language will disclose the fact, that a great majority of words perform at the same time two or more distinct offices. The RULE to be observed in parsing is, that a word should be parse! accordiag to its PRINCIPAL office in the sentence.



obscured, and as a perplexing tautology is thereby obviated, I prefer to call it a Conjunction. It is commonly used to introduce an Auxiliary Sentence-and when it follows a Transitive Verb, the Auxiliary is the logical object of the Phrase or Sentence. (See Diagram 24, page 32.)



Worth indicates value-and value implies a relationand relation of words is commonly expressed by a Preposition. EXAMPLE" He possessed an estate worth five hundred pounds per


"He has an annuity of five hundred pounds.'

This word is used also as a Noun.

EXAMPLE" He was a man of great worth."

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The word so, is commonly used as an Adverb. But it is often used as a substitute for a Word, a Phrase, or a Sentence.

EXAMPLES-You are industrious-not so.

John has become a good scholar.
So I predicted.

It is sometimes a Conjunction used for if.
EXAMPLES "I'll frown, and be perverse,

So thou wilt woo."-Juliet.


say thee nay,


OBS.-Some words perform, at the same time, two distinct offices—a primary and a secondary office.

"The surging billows and the gamboling storms Come, crouching, to his feet."

"Crouching"-being derived from the verb crouch, and partaking of the nature of that verb by denoting a particular kind or mode of action-is a modification of a Verb--a Participle. But, because it is here used to modify "come "-denoting the

Here "surging"-being derived from the verb surge, and partaking of the nature of that verb by denoting a particular kind or mode of action--is a modification of a Verb-a Participle. But, because it is here used as descriptive of "billows"denoting a condition of billows-it manner of the action expressed by

is an Adjective. And this being the principal use of the word in this connection, we call it a Verbal Adjective.

The saine remarks apply to "gamJoling, as descriptive of "storms.

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that word-it is an Adverb. And, this being the principal use of the word in this connection, we call is an Adverb.

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Many words are used as Prepositions or Conjunctions, according as they introduce Phrases or Sentences.

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"Than I".

"Than I "As 1".

John arrived as soon as I did.

Before me"... Is a Phrase, used to modify "arrived;" hence, an Adverb, "Betore I did".. Is a Sentence, used to modify "arrived;" hence, an Adverb. . Is a Phrase, used to modify "arrived;" hence, an Adverb. did”.. Is a Sentence, used to modify "arrived;" hence, an Adverb. . Is a Phrase, used to modify "arrived;" hence, an Adverb. .. Is a Sentence, used to modify "arrived;" hence, an Adverb. Of the many words thus used as Prepositions and Conjuuctions, custom allows two-as and than-to be followed by Pronouns in the Nominative form.

"As I dtd".

EXAMPLES "Thou art wiser than I."*


Thun is also used as a Pronoun, when it is the subject or object of a Verb: as "He does no more than is done by the Than," in this example, is the subject of "is done"hence, a Pronoun. But in this and similar examples, it may become a Preposition by supplying the ellipsis; as-" He does no more than [that which] is done by the rabbit." probably the more correct rendering.

This is

THAT...This word is primarily an Adjective. But it is also

used as a Pronoun. And, in consequence of the ohscurity of an ellipsis (which may be generally supplied), it is often used as a Conjunction.

EXAMPLES" He demanded that payment should be made."

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Here "that" is the object of "demanded," and is substituted

for the whole of the former sentence.

But, as the sense is not

a Conjunction,

• Shall we--as some Grammarians insist-call" than and require the "ellipsis to be supplied?" Wiser!

Thou art wiser than I am wise!

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Thou art viser than I am

Shall the modification of one word determine the etymology of another connected with it? Should not rather the office of each word determine its etymology, and the etymology thus determined, determine the form of another word depending on it for sense?

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All, old and young, went.

All, from the oldest to the youngest, went.

'And cries of-live forever-struck the skies."

We do not claim that these examples contain words precisely in apposition-as much so, however, as any cases claimed to be

connected by as.

As-is often used (by ellipsis of one or more words) as a Pronoun. [See Rem. on than, below.]

BUT.... This word-like most Conjunctions-is derived from a Saxon Verb signifying "except"—" set aside"

&c. [See Webster's Improved Grammar.]

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In the list above given, the word retains its original signification and office.


"I cannot but rejoice."

I cannot fail-omit to rejoice.

Here "but" is a Verb-Potential Mode-and " rejoice" is a Verb-Infinitive Mode, depending on "but."

But is also used instead of the words, if it were not.

"And but for these vile guns, he would himself have been a soldier."


When this word qualifies a word, it is an Adjectivewhen it represents its noun, it is an Adjective Pronoun. But when it shows a relation of two words, it is a Preposition.

EXAMPLES "These armies once lived, and breathed, and felt like us.”—


"An hour like this, may well display the emptiness of hu

man grandeur."

THAN.. This word always expresses comparison, and comparison implies a relation. When this relation is expressed by words, than is a Preposition. When it is expressed by sentences; and when words, phrases, or sentences, are merely connected by it, it is a Conjunction.

The use of it as a Preposition is sanctioned by good authority ancient and modern

EXAMPLES "They are stronger than lions."

"Thou shalt have no other Gods than me."-Com. Prayer. "But in faith, she had been wiser than me."-Southey. "Their works are more perfect than those of men.”—Taylor.



Since I cannot go, I will be contented here.

.Solomon was wise-we are not so.
.So calm, so bright.

..She is more nice than wise.

Than whom none higher sat.

We have more than heart can wish.
That book is mine.

Pron. Rel. Him that cometh unto me.

Pron. Adj. Forgive. me my foul murder? that cannot he
Conj......I am glad that he has lived thus long.












.Prep . Pron..







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They labored hard till night.

Till I come, give attention to reading.
From morn, even until night.
Until the day dawn.

At what hour did you arrive?

.Rel. Pron. What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone.

. Inter. Pron What does it avail?

.Exclama.. What! is thy servant a dog!
To inscribe a circle within a circle.
Received on the within bond, five hundred dollars.


Within. Within...Adj



When this word introduces a sentence, it is properly called a Conjunction.

EXAMPLE" As ye journey, sweetly sing."

When it introduces a phrase, it is a preposition, and is then generally equivalent to the preposition for. EXAMPLES" He gave me this as the latest news from the army." "I am always fearful, lest I should tell you that for news, with which you are well acquainted."-Cowper.

"For example."

"I mention these as a few exemplifications."

"And melancholy marked him for her own."-Gray.

"They will seek out some particular herb which they do not use as food."—'


"His friends were counted as his enemies."—Sigourney. "All mark thee for a prey."—Cowper.

The above examples clearly indicate that as is sometimes a Preposition.

Rem.-Many Grammarians insist that as, in the above and similar must be a Conjunction, because, in most cases, it connects words in apposition.


The same is true of other Prepositions.

EXAMPLES-In the city of New York.

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