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PART II. - ETYMOLOGY-OBSERVATIONS.
« We use Rice's gold pens."
The word “Rice's” (omitting name of a metal, is a Noun. But, But, because it is here used to indi.
the 's) is a namemhence a Noun. Here tne word “gold,” being the because it is here used to indicate a
cate a kind of pen—not with rekind of pen (not with respect to its spect to ownership, for Rice does shape or size, but) with respect to
not own it, but (partly with respect its material, it is an Adjective. to its shape or size, and also) with And this last, being its principal respect to the manufactory at which office, is the office in which it is
it was made, and, by inference, the recognized—and we parse it accord-quality-it is an Adjective. And ingly. The Noun becomes an Ad- this last
, being its principal office, is jective.
the office in which it is recognized and we parse it accordingly. The
Noun becomes an Adjective. Nor-composed of not and other-retains the offices of its elements.
“Nor will I at my humble lot repine." Here" nor”—being used to modify “repine"—is an Adverb of Negation. But, because it introduces a Sentence, additional to a former Sen. tence, it is a Conjunction: like many other conjunctions, it indicates the office of the sentence which it introduces, making it negative.
Obs.-Some words perform an individual office, and at the same time a representative office.
1. Bring hither that book. 2. Bring to me that book.
Equivalent sentences, 3. Bring me that book.
each correct. In the examples above,
" Hither" modifies "To me" modifies [To] "me" modifies " bring ;' hence, it is “ bring;" hence, it is “bring;" hence, it is an Adverb. an Adverb.
an Adverb. “ Me,” in the third example, as a representative for the Phrase (to me) of which it is a part, is an Adverb. But, being used for a Noun, it is á Pronoun; and, as the object of the phrase, is in the Objective Case.
“ The captain had gone below." 5. Below". ..Shows a relation of " had gone” to deck understood.
Hence, it is a Preposition. “ Below (deck)" Modifies “had gone” (denoting place). Hence, it is an
Adverb. “ Below,". .As a representative of its (Adverbial) Phrase, modifies
“had gone” (denoting place). Hence, it is an Adverb. For farther illustrations, see Obs. 5 and 6, page 95. Rem.-A careful examination of the genius of the English language will disclose the fact, that a great majority of words perform at the same time two or more distinct offices. The Rule to be observed in parsing is, that a word should be parsed accordiag to its PRINCIPAL office in the sentence.
VARIABLE OFFICES OF WORDS.
obscured, and as a perplexing tautology is thereby obviated, I prefer to call it a Conjunction. It is commonly used to introduce an Auxiliary Sentence--and when it follows a Transitive Verb, the Auxiliary is the logical object of the Phrase or Sentense. (See Diagram 24, page 32.) WORTH.. Worth indicates value and value implies a relation
and relation of words is commonly expressed by a
Preposition. EXAMPLE_" He possessed an estate worth five hundred pounds per
"He has an annuity of five hundred pounds.” This word is used also as a Noun. EXAMPLE—" He was a man of great worth.” So...... The word so, is commonly used as an Adverb. But
it is often used as a substitute for a Word, a Phrase,
or a Sentence. EXAMPLES—You are industrious-not so.
John has become a good scholar.
So I predicted.
THE TWOFOLD OFFICE OF SOME WORDS. OBS.—Some words perform, at the same time, two distinct offices—a primary and a secondary office.
“ The surging billows and the gamboling storms
Come, crouching, to his feet." Here “surging”-being derived “Crouching”-being derived from from the verb surge, and partaking the verb crouch, and partaking of of the nature of that verb by denot- the nature of that verb by denoting a ing a particular kind or mode of particular kind or mode of action:action--is a modification of a Verb-- is a modification of a Verb--a Para Participle. But, because it is here ticiple. But, because it is here used used as descriptive of “billows” to modify come”-denoting the denoting a condition of billows-it manner of the action expressed by is an Adjective. And this being the that word—it is an Adverb. And principal use of the word in this con- this being the principal use of the nestion, we call it a Verbal Adjec- word in this connection, we call is tive.
an Adverb. The saine remarks apply to "gamwuling," as descriptive of “storms.'
Many words are used as Prepositions or Conjunctions, according as they introduce Phrases or Sentences. EXAMPLES—John arrived before me.
John arrived before I did.
John arrived as soon as I did. Berore me" . Is a Phrase, used to modify “arrived;" hence, an Adve’o. ss Betore I did”.. Is a Sentence, used to modify “ arrived;" hence, an Allreib. " Than I”. . Is a Phrase, used to modify "arrived;" hence, an Alverb. "Than I did”.. Is a Sentence, used to modify" arrived ;" hence, an Adverb. "As l” .Is a Phrase, used to modify's arrived;" hence, an Arrcrb. "As I itd”. .. Is a Sentence, used to modify “ arrived;" hence, an Adverb.
Of the many words thus used as Prepositions and Conjuuctions, custom allows two-as and than—to be followed by Pronouns in the Nominative form. EXAMPLES Thou art wiser than 1.”*
Thun is also used as a Pronoun, when it is the subject or object of a Verb; as “ He does no more than is done by the rabbit.” Than,” in this example, is the subject of “ is done"hence, a Pronoun. But in this and similar examples, it may become a Preposition by supplying the ellipsis; as—" He does no more than [that which] is done by the rabbit.” This is probably the more correct rendering. Tut...This word is primarily an Adjective. But it is also
used as a Pronoun. And, in consequence of the abscurity of an ellipsis (which may be generally supplied),
it is often used as a Conjunction. ExamPLES—" He demanded that payment should be made." This may
be resolved into two sentences.
Payment should be made.”
“He demanded thal." Here “ that is the object of “ demanded,” and is substituted for the whole of the former sentence. But, as the sense is not
• Shall we--as some Grammarians insist-call “than" a Conjunction, and require the "ellipsis to be supplied ?" Thou art viser than I am wiser! Tanu art viser than I am woise !
Shall the modification of one word determine the etymology of arciner connected with ii ? Shonld not rather the office of each word deterinine its etymlogy, and the etymology thus determined, determine the forin of another word depending on it for sense ?
VARIABLE OFFICES OF WORDS.
thy shadowy hand was seen
' And cries of_live forever-struck the skies.” We do not claim that these examples contain words precisely in apposition-as much so, however, as any cases claimed to be connected by as.
As-is often used (by ellipsis of one or more words) as a Pronoun. (See Rem. on than, below.] BUT. This word-like most Conjunctions—is derived from a
Saxon Verb signifying except—“ set aside"— fail,
&c. [See Webster's Improved Grammar.] In the list above given, the word retains its original signification and office. EXAMPLES—"I cannot but rejoice."
I cannot fail-onil to rejoice. Here “but” is a Verb-Potential Modemand “ rejoice" is a Verb—Infinitive Mode, depending on “but.”
But is also used instead of the words, if it were not. “And but for these vile guns, he would himself have been a soldier.” LIKE ... When this word qualifies a word, it is an Adjectivem
when it represents its noun, it is an Adjective Pronoun. But when it shows a relation of two eds, it is a Pre
position. EXAMPLES—“These armies once lived, and breathed, and felt like us.'
Morgan. “ An hour like this, may well display the emptiness of hu
man grandeur.” THAN.. This word always expresses comparison, and comparison
implies a relation. When this relation is expressed by words, than is a Preposition. When it is expressed by sentences; and when words, phrases, or sentences, are merely connected by it, it is a Conjunction. The use of it as a Preposition is sanctioned by good
authority-ancient and modern EXAMPLES—"They are stronger than lions."
- Thou shalt have no other Gods than me."- Con. Prayer. “But in faith, she had been wiser than me."-Southey. “Their works are more perfect than those of men." - Taylor,
Since. Conj . Since I cannot go, I will be contented here. So.... . Adj
.. Solomon was wise-we are not so. So... .. Adv . So calm, so bright. Than
.Conj She is more nice than wise. Than .Prep Than whom none higher sat. Than .Pron.. We have more than heart can wish. That . Adj
That book is mine. That .Pron. Rel. Him that cometh unto me. That . Pron. Adj. Forgive me my foul murder? that cannot he That .Conj. ...I am glad that he has lived thus long. Then .Adv Then, when I am thy captive, talk of chains. Then. ..Conj Then I'll look up. Then. .Pron Till then. Till .Prep
They labored hard till night. Till .Conj
Till I come, give attention to reading. Until. . Prep . From morn, even until night. Until. .Conj
Until the day dawn. What. Adj
.. At what hour did you arrive? What. Rel. Pron. What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. What. Inter. Pron What does it avail ? What. Exclama.. What! is thy servant a dog! Within... Prep
To inscribe a circle within a circle. Within... Adj ...... Received on the within bond, five hundred dollars.
OBSERVATIONS ON SOME OF THE FOREGOING WORDS. As. : When this word introduces a sentence, it is properly
called a Conjunction. EXAMPLE_" As ye journey, sweetly sing.”
When it introduces a phrase, it is a preposition, and is
then generally equivalent to the preposition for. EXAMPLES—" He gave me this as the latest news from the army."
“ I am always fearful, lest I should tell you that for news,
with which you are well acquainted.”- Cowper. " For example.” “I mention these as a few exemplifications.". “And melancholy marked him for her own.”—Gray, " They will seek out some particular herb which they do not use as food.”—Taylor. “His friends were counted as his enemies.”—Sigourney. “ All mark thee for a prey.
Cowper. The above examples clearly indicate that as is sometimes a Preposition.
Rem.--Many Grammarians insist that as, in the above and similar examples, I must be a Conjunction, because, in most cases, it connects words in opposition.
The same is true of other Prepositions. EXAMPLES--In the cily of New York.