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Def. 11. An Adverb is a word used to modify the signification of a verb, an adjective, or another modifier.
EXAMPLES—[He writes] well—very [good boys.]
Def. 12. A Preposition is a word used to express a relation of other words to each other.
EXAMPLES—[moves] in (way]–[Books are] on the table.]
Def. 13. A Conjunction is a word used to introduce a sentence, or to connect other words.
EXAMPLES-- And [can I leave thee]—[Henry] and [Homer came.]
Def. 14. An Exclamation is a word used to express a sudden emotion.
EXAMPLES-O! [Liberty]-Ah! [the treasure.]
NOTE.—Words are often used for rhetorical purposes merely -having no direct, grammatical construction. Hence,
Def. 15. Words of Euphony are words used only for the sake of sound.
OBS. They are used1. To render other words emphatic. As, “.John and Homer, and even Henry, came to the Lecture."
“The moon herself is lost in heaven."-Ossian. 2. To introduce a sentenceAs, “ Come, pass along." "Now then, we are prepared to take
up the main question." 6. There are no idlers here." 3. To preserve the Rhythm in a line in poetryAs," I sit me down a pensive hour to spend."
PHRASES. A Phrase is two or more words properly arranged, not constituting a distinct proposition.
CLASSIFICATION OF PHRASES. Rem.-Phrases are used as substitutes for nouns, adjectives, and adVerbs: or, they are independent in their construction. Hence,
Prin. Phrases are distinguished as
1. Substantive. 3. Adverbial.
2. Adjective. 4. Independent. Def. 16. A Substantive Phrase is a phrase used as the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.
EXAMPLETO obey God (is the highest duty of man.)
Def. 17. An Adjective Phrase is a phrase used to qualify a noun or pronoun.
EXAMPLE-[The lips] of the wise [dispense knowledge.]
Def. 18. An Adverbial Phrase is a phrase used to modify the signification of a verb, adjective, or adverb.
EXAMPLE, [God moves] in a mysterious way.
Def. 19. An Independent Phrase is a phrase not joined to any other word going before in construction.
EXAMPLE—The hour having arrived, [we commenced the exercises.]
Prin.—By their forms, phrases are classified as-Preposetional, Infinitive, Participial, and Independent.
DEF. 19, a.-A Prepositional Phrase is introduced by a preposition having a noun, or a word used for a noun, as its object of relation. As, “ In a mysterious way."
DEF. 19, b.-An Infinitive Phrase is introduced by the preposition to, having a verb as its object of relation. As, To love—to study-to be diligent.
DEF. 19, C.-A Participial Phrase is introduced by a participle, and commonly has one or more adjuncts, or objects of an action. As, Scaling yonder peak-wheeling near its brow.
DEF. 19, d.-An Independent Phrase is introduced by a noun or pronoun followed by a participle depending upon it.
As, John having lost one lesson, the prize was given to Henry.
SENTENCES. A sentence is an assemblage of words, so arranged as to express a fact.
ANALYSIS OF A SENTENCE. Prin. A sentence is composed of
1. The Principal parts.
2. The Adjuncts. Def. 20. The principal parts of a sentence, are those words which are necessary to express the unqualified assertion.
EXAMPLES--God moves--He plants footsteps [and] rides. Prin. The principal parts of a sentence, are
The Subject, | The Preilicate, | The Object. NOTE.—Every sentence must have a subject and predicate, expressed or understood.
Def. 21. The Subject of a sentence, is that, concerning which something is asserted.
Obs. It is always a noun, or a word, phrase, or sentence, used for a noun.
be1. A Word-as, God exists-knowledge is power-man lives-science promotes happiness_birds fly-John* saws wood.
2. A Phrase- To be, contents his natural desire—to do good, is the duty of all men-his being a minister, prevented his rising to civil power.
“ Compelling children to sit erect for a long time, is an evil practice." - Cutter. 3. A Sentence—" That all men are created equal, is a self-evident truth."
Def. 22. The Predicate of a sentence, is the word or words that express what is affirmed of the subject.
OBS.—It is always a verb, and may have added to it another
* In the example, “ John saws wood,” John is the subject, because that word is the name of the person concerning whom something is asserted.
verb, a pronoun, a participle, an adjective, a noun, or a prepo. sition.
1. A Verb only-John saws* wood-God exists—birds fly-he rides-Ani. mals run.
2. A Verb and Verb—I shall go–I do remember. 3. A Verb and a Participle-John was injured—the house is being built -the legions were bought and sold-James is improving.
4. A Verb and an Adjective—They looked beautiful he became poorsoldiers waxed valiant-John is sleepy.
4. A Verb and a Noun-God is love-Friend is treasure.
5. A Verb and a Preposition—"Its idle hopes are o’er"_"the mountebank was laughed at.”
Obs.—The logical predicate of a sentence properly includes the object; but in a tremure on Grammar, it is proper to treat of the object as a distinct part of the sentence.
Def. 23. The Object of a sentence, is the word or words on which the action, asserted by the predicate, terminates.
Obs. It is always a noun, or a word, phrase, or sentence, used for a noun.
It may be 1. A Word—John saws wovit-i have seen him feed the hungry—“He saith among the trumpets, Ha! ha!"
2. A Phrase—I regret his being absent his being a minister prevented his rising to civil power.
3. A Sentence- And God said, Let there be light—The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God-I thought I heard a voice cry, SLEEP NO MORE.
Obs. 1.-A Prepositional Phrase always has an object of relation expressed or understood.
EXAMPLES-In a mysterious way. We are fond of walking-and of studying grammar-Boys love to skale-We love to please our parents.
Obs. 2.- When the object of relation is a transitive verb or a participle, it commonly has an object of an action.
EXAMPLES—We love to please our parents—We are fond of studying grammar.
OBs. 3.-A Participial Phrase has an object of an action, when the participle is transitive.
Examples-Scaling yonder peak-Mr. Hammond, having acquired a fortune, has retired from business.
* " Sures” is the grammatical predicate of “John,” because that woru denotes the act of John. “Saws wood" is the logical predicate, because those two words express the complete proposition.
+ In the example, “ John saws wood,” wood is the object of saws, because tha: word is the name of the thing on which the action expressed by “saws'terminates,
EXAMPLES OF SENTENCES.
Quest. Concerning what is something here declared ?
Ă. A sentence—for it is an assemblage of words, so arranged as to assert a fact."
• Animals run." Q. In this sentence, for what is the word " animals” used ? A. It is used to tell what 6 Q. For what is the word “run” used ? A. To tell what " animals” do.
66 Animals run." « Every sentence must have a Subject and a Predicate.” Q. In this sentence what is the Subject ?
A. “ Animals"—for it is the name of the things “concerning which something is asserted."
Q. What is the Predicate ?
expresses what is affirmed of the subject." Z Let the pupil give an exposition of the following additional
Examples Birds fly.
Waters are running. Fishes swim.
Mary is reading Horses gallop
Winter has come. Lightnings fash.
Resources are developed. Thunders roll.
Corn is harvested. Girls sing.
Wheat has been sown.
Mountains have been elevated.
He might have been respected. Rem.-In the last example, the four words, "might have been re spected,” constitute the Predicate of " he."