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uninGICAL CHART.

SYNTAX treats of the construction of sentences by determining the relation, agreement, and arrangement of words. GENERAL PrinCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS TO BE NOTICED

IN ANALYSIS AND CONSTRUCTION.

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SENTENCES
I. A SENTENCE is an assemblage of words so arranged as to
express an entire proposition.

PRINCIPAL PARTS
II. A SENTENCE consists of

and

ADJUNCTS.
III. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS of a Sentence are those words

necessary to make the unqualified assertion.
IV. THE ADJUNCTS of a Sentence are the words used to
modify or describe other words in the Sentence.

The SUBJECT,
V. The Principal Parts of a Sen-

The PREDICATE,
tence are

The OBJECT.
VI. THE SUBJECT of a Sentence is that concerning which

something is asserted.
VII. THE PREDICATE is the word or words that assert some-

thing of the Subject.
VIII. THE OBJECT of a Sentence is that on which the act ex-
pressed by the Predicate terminates.

A WORD,
IX. THE SUBJECT of a Sentence

may

A PHRASE; or X. THE OBJECT of a Sentence may be

A SENTENCE.

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may be

Ś Common or
XI. A WORD used as

A NOUN,

Proper. the Subject or Ob

Personal,
ject of a Sentence

Relalive,
A PRONOUN. Interrogutive,

Adjective.

Masculine Gender, XII. Nouns and PRONOUNS are of the Feminine Gender, or

Neuter Gender.

First Person, XIII. NOUNS and PRONOUNS are of the Second Person, or

Third Person. XIV. Nouns and Pronouns are of the Singular Number, or

Plural Number. XV. THE SUBJECT of a Sentence is in the Nominative Case. XVI. THE OBJECT of a Sentence is in the Objective Case

Another VERB,

A PARTICIPLE, XVII. THE GRAMMATICAL

An ADJECTIVE, PREDICATE of a Sen- A VERB

A NOUN, tence is

A Pronoun, or

A PREPOSITION.
Prior Past Tense,

Past Tense,
INDICATIVE Prior Present Tense,
MODE,

Present Tense,
Prior Future Tense,

Future Tense.
XVIII. A VERB

Prior Past Tense,
POTENTIAL
in Predi-

Past Tense,
MODE,

Prior Present Tense,
be in the

Present Tense,
SUBJUNCTIVE Past Tense,
MODE,

Present Tense.
IMPERATIVE

Present Tense.
MODE.

Person
XIX. A VERB in Predication must agrees

and
with its Subject in

Number.

with or without

cation may

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PRIMARY
XX. THE ADJUNCTS of a Sentence are

SECONDARY.
XXI PRIMARY ADJUNCTS are attached to the Principal

Parts of a Sentence or Phrase.
XXII. SECONDARY ADJUNCTS are attached to other Adjuncts.

Words, XXIII. -ADJUNCTS may consist of PHRASES, or

SENTENCES.

Superl.,
Qualifying, Posit.,

Compar.,
Dimin,

Pure,
ADJ.
Specifying, Numer.,

Possess, XXIV. WORDS, PHRASES,

Trans.,

Verbal. and SENTENCES used

Intrans. as Adjuncts are

Time,
Place,

Degree,
Adv.

Manner,
Cause,

etc.

INTRANSITIVE or TRANSITIVE, XXV. A SENTENCE may be SIMPLE or COMPOUND,

PRINCIPAL or AUXILIARY. XXVI. AN INTRANSITIVE SENTENCE has no Object. XXVII. A TRANSITIVE SENTENCE has an Object. XXVIII. A SIMPLE SENTENCE has all its Principal Parts

Single. XXIX. A COMPOUND SENTENCE has some of its Principal

Parts Compound. XXX A PRINCIPAL SENTENCE asserts a Principal Proposi

tion. XXXI. An AUXILIARY SENTENCE asserts a Dependent Pro

position. XXXII. CONJUNCTIONS introduce Sentences, and connect

Words and Phrases.

etc.,

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XXXIII. A PREPOSITION shows a relation of its object to the

word which its Phrase qualifies. XXXIV. An ExcLAMATION has no dependent Construction. XXXV. A WORD OF EUPHONY is, in its office, chiefly rhe

torical.

II. PHRASES.

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XXXVI. A PHRASE is two or more words properly arranged,

not constituting an entire proposition; but performing a distinct etymological office.

PRINCIPAL PARTS XXXVII. A PHRASE consists of

and

ADJUNCTS XXXVIII. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS of a Phrase are thos? sords

necessary to its structure. XXXIX. THE ADJUNCTS of a Phrase are words used to modify

or describe other words.
XL. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS | THE LEADING WORD,
of a Phrase are

THE SUBSEQUENT WORD.
XLI. THE LEADING WORD of a Phrase, is the word used

to introduce the Phrase--generally connecting its

Subsequent to the word which the Phrase qualifies. XLII. THE SUBSEQUENT WORD of a Phrase, is the word

which follows the Leading Word as its object-

depending on it for sense. XLIII. THE ADJUNCTS may con

Adjective Words,

Purases, or sist of

Adrerbial SENTENCES.

TRANSITIVE or
XLIV. A PHRASE is

INTRANSITIVE.
XLV. A TRANSITIVE PHRASE is one whose Subsequent

(Infinitive Verb or Participle) asserts an action

which terminates on an Object. XLVI. AN INTRANSITIVE PHRASE is one whose Subsequent

is a Noun or Pronoun, or a Verb or Participle having no Object.

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PARTICIPIAL,
XLVII. A PHRASE is, in form,

INFINITIVE, or

INDEPENDENT. XLVIII. A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE is one that is ir troduced

by a Preposition-having a Noun, a Pronoun (Word, Phrase, or Sentence), or a Participle, for

its object of relation. XLIX. A PARTICIPIAL PHRASE is one that is introduced

by a Participle-being followed by an Object of

an action, or by an Adjunct. L. An INFINITIVE PHRASE is one that is introduced by

the Preposition to—having a Verb in the Infinitive

Mode as its Object of relation.
LI. AN INDEPENDENT PHRASE is one that is introduced

by a Noun or Pronoun-having a Participle de

pending on it.
LII. A Phrase is COMPOUND, when it has two or more

Leaders or Subsequents.
LIII. A Phrase is Complex, when one of its Principal

Parts is qualified by another Phrase. Remark.-Words combined into a Sentence, have relation to each other—a relation which often determines their forms. The principal Modifications of words as treated in Part II. of this work, are those of form—and these forms vary according to their relation to other words. Thus, in speaking of Frederick, I may say, “ he assisted James.” Here "he" stands for the name of Frederick; and that form of the Pronoun is used to denote that Frederick was the agent of the action—the Subject of the Verb. But if I say, “ him James assisted," I make quite a different assertion, not because I speak of different persons or of a different act, but, because I use a different modification of the word "he.". But the form does not always determine the office of words in a Sentence. I may say,

Frederick assisted James,
And

James assisted Frederick. Here, although I use the same words, and the same form of those words, I make two widely different assertions. The difference in the assertions in these examples, is caused by the change of position of the words. Hence, the laws of AGREEMENT and ARRANGEMENT of words in the coustruction of Sentences.

Rem.-As Diagrams are of great service in constructing sentences, by berving as tests of the grammatical correctness of a composition, they are inserted in Part III. It is hoped that the teacher will not fail to require the class to write sentences which shall contain words in every possible condition, and in every variety of modification. Young pupils should be required to place the sentences in Diagrams,

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