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SYNTAX treats of the construction of sentences by determining the relation, agreement, and arrangement of words. GENERAL PrinCIPLES AND DEFINITIONS TO BE NOTICED
IN ANALYSIS AND CONSTRUCTION.
necessary to make the unqualified assertion.
something is asserted.
thing of the Subject.
A PHRASE; or X. THE OBJECT of a Sentence may be
Ś Common or
Proper. the Subject or Ob
Masculine Gender, XII. Nouns and PRONOUNS are of the Feminine Gender, or
First Person, XIII. NOUNS and PRONOUNS are of the Second Person, or
Third Person. XIV. Nouns and Pronouns are of the Singular Number, or
Plural Number. XV. THE SUBJECT of a Sentence is in the Nominative Case. XVI. THE OBJECT of a Sentence is in the Objective Case
A PARTICIPLE, XVII. THE GRAMMATICAL
An ADJECTIVE, PREDICATE of a Sen- A VERB
A NOUN, tence is
A Pronoun, or
Prior Past Tense,
Prior Present Tense,
with or without
Parts of a Sentence or Phrase.
Words, XXIII. -ADJUNCTS may consist of PHRASES, or
Possess, XXIV. WORDS, PHRASES,
Verbal. and SENTENCES used
Intrans. as Adjuncts are
INTRANSITIVE or TRANSITIVE, XXV. A SENTENCE may be SIMPLE or COMPOUND,
PRINCIPAL or AUXILIARY. XXVI. AN INTRANSITIVE SENTENCE has no Object. XXVII. A TRANSITIVE SENTENCE has an Object. XXVIII. A SIMPLE SENTENCE has all its Principal Parts
Single. XXIX. A COMPOUND SENTENCE has some of its Principal
Parts Compound. XXX A PRINCIPAL SENTENCE asserts a Principal Proposi
tion. XXXI. An AUXILIARY SENTENCE asserts a Dependent Pro
position. XXXII. CONJUNCTIONS introduce Sentences, and connect
Words and Phrases.
XXXIII. A PREPOSITION shows a relation of its object to the
word which its Phrase qualifies. XXXIV. An ExcLAMATION has no dependent Construction. XXXV. A WORD OF EUPHONY is, in its office, chiefly rhe
XXXVI. A PHRASE is two or more words properly arranged,
not constituting an entire proposition; but performing a distinct etymological office.
PRINCIPAL PARTS XXXVII. A PHRASE consists of
ADJUNCTS XXXVIII. THE PRINCIPAL PARTS of a Phrase are thos? sords
necessary to its structure. XXXIX. THE ADJUNCTS of a Phrase are words used to modify
or describe other words.
THE SUBSEQUENT WORD.
to introduce the Phrase--generally connecting its
Subsequent to the word which the Phrase qualifies. XLII. THE SUBSEQUENT WORD of a Phrase, is the word
which follows the Leading Word as its object-
depending on it for sense. XLIII. THE ADJUNCTS may con
Purases, or sist of
(Infinitive Verb or Participle) asserts an action
which terminates on an Object. XLVI. AN INTRANSITIVE PHRASE is one whose Subsequent
is a Noun or Pronoun, or a Verb or Participle having no Object.
INDEPENDENT. XLVIII. A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE is one that is ir troduced
by a Preposition-having a Noun, a Pronoun (Word, Phrase, or Sentence), or a Participle, for
its object of relation. XLIX. A PARTICIPIAL PHRASE is one that is introduced
by a Participle-being followed by an Object of
an action, or by an Adjunct. L. An INFINITIVE PHRASE is one that is introduced by
the Preposition to—having a Verb in the Infinitive
Mode as its Object of relation.
by a Noun or Pronoun-having a Participle de
pending on it.
Leaders or Subsequents.
Parts is qualified by another Phrase. Remark.-Words combined into a Sentence, have relation to each other—a relation which often determines their forms. The principal Modifications of words as treated in Part II. of this work, are those of form—and these forms vary according to their relation to other words. Thus, in speaking of Frederick, I may say, “ he assisted James.” Here "he" stands for the name of Frederick; and that form of the Pronoun is used to denote that Frederick was the agent of the action—the Subject of the Verb. But if I say, “ him James assisted," I make quite a different assertion, not because I speak of different persons or of a different act, but, because I use a different modification of the word "he.". But the form does not always determine the office of words in a Sentence. I may say,
Frederick assisted James,
James assisted Frederick. Here, although I use the same words, and the same form of those words, I make two widely different assertions. The difference in the assertions in these examples, is caused by the change of position of the words. Hence, the laws of AGREEMENT and ARRANGEMENT of words in the coustruction of Sentences.
Rem.-As Diagrams are of great service in constructing sentences, by berving as tests of the grammatical correctness of a composition, they are inserted in Part III. It is hoped that the teacher will not fail to require the class to write sentences which shall contain words in every possible condition, and in every variety of modification. Young pupils should be required to place the sentences in Diagrams,