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Obs. 4.- The subject follows the predicate, or the first word of the predicate, in the declarative modes.

1. When the conjunction if, used to introduce a conditional or modifying sentence, is omilica. EXAMPLE—- Dost thou not, Hassan, lay these dreams aside,

l'll plunge thee headlong in the whelming tide." 2. When the word there is used to introduce the Sentence. EXAMPLE_There is a call for those who weep. 3. When the verb is in the Imperative Mode. Example-Turn ye, turn ye at my reproof. 4. By the poets and public speakers, for rhetorical effect. EXAMPLES—"Loud peals the THUNDER.”

" Perish ihe groveling THOUGHT.” Obs. 4.-- When a Substantive Phrase or Sentence is the subject of a Principal Sentence, it is commonly placed before the predicate. EXAMPLEs~" TO DO GOOD, is the duty of all men.”

THAT WE DIFFER IN OPINION, is not strange. Obs. 5.—The Non inative Phrase sometimes follows the predicate. EXAMPLE—"The sure way to be cheated is, to FANCY OURSELVES MORE

CUNNING THAN OTHERS." This position generally obtains, when the indefinite pronoun it is placed instead of the phrase. " It" precedes, and the phrase follows the verb.

EXAMPLE—It is the duty of all, to do good to others.

Rem.-In parsing examples like these, the Phrase is to be regarded as explanatory of the Pronoun it—to define the indefinite word—and is, in its office, analogous to a word used to explain a preceding Noun. [See Independent Case, Obs. 1, p. 51.]

Obs. 6.- When one word includes in its signification many others, expressed in the same connection, the general term is the proper subject of the verb; and the included terms may bo regarded as explanatory; and, therefore, independent in construction. (See Independent Case, p. 51.] EXAMPLE-"All sink before it-comfort, joy, and wealth.

Some Teachers prefer to supply the ellipsis—which is not improper.

Note II.—Unnecessary repetition of a subject should be avoided."

Obs. 1.—This principle is violated in the following example:

“His teeth, they chatter, chatter still." Obs. 2.-But this practice is allowable, when necessary to & proper rhetorical effect. EXAMPLES-Our Fathers, where are they? And the Prophets, do they

live for ever ? Rem.—The agent of an action expressed by an Infinitive Verb, may he in the Nominative or Objective Case.

1. I purpose to go.

2. I invited him to go. Rem. 2.-The agent of an action expressed by a Participle, may be in the Possessive or Objective Case.

1. I heard of your going to Boston.
2. The plowing of the WICKED is sin.

Exercises. 7 Let the class make Sentences which shall be correct examples of the

several Notes, Observations, and Remarks, under Rule 1.

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Thus star by, star declines,

Till all are passed away;
As morning high and higher shines,

To pure and perfect day;
Nor sink those stars in empty night,
But hide themselves in heaven's own light."

"Friend after friend departs."



Principal Parts.. { Departs... Predicate of friend." } Intransitive.


After friend. Adjunct of " departs."


Friend....... is a name..

Hence..a Noun. name of a class of persons. Hence.. Common. [The gender is not indicated; and, whenever it is not, no mention of the gender should be made.) spoken of........

Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one.

.Hence.. Singular Number. subject of departs.. ... Hence.. Nominative Case. After friend.. modifies “departs”- denoting

time, or order of Adverb. After ........ expresses a relation of “de

parts” and “ friend”. .Hence..a Preposition. a name..

Hence..a Noun. name of a class..

.... Hence.. Common. spoken of.

Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one..

.Hence.. Singular Number, object of the relation expressed by “after

..Hence.. Objective Case. Departs.. .... expresses an action.

Hence..a Verb. action has no object.. ..Hence.. Intransitive. simply declares..

.Hence.. Indicative Mode. denotes present time. Hence.. Present Tense. predicate of " friend”

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.... Hence { Singular Number

Who has not lost a friend."


Who..... Subject, Principal Parts.. Has lost..Predicate, Hence, a Transitive Sentence. Friend.... Object,

Simple, Not... Adjunct of " has lost." Adjuncts....

Adjunct of " friend."



Who..... is a Pronoun-Interrogative-Third Person-Singular Num.

ber-Nominative Case to “has lost.” “The subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominative Case.” Has lost.. Is a Verb-- Irregular (lose, lost, losing, lost]-Transitive---AC

tive Voice-Indicative Mode-Past Tense Indefinite--Third

Person-Singular Number, to agree with its Subject "who." Not...... is an Adverb-Negative-Modifies “has lost.”

. is an Adjective-Specifying-Specifies " friend."


Friend ... is a Noun--Common-Third Person--Singular Nun ber -Ob

jective Case to “has lost."


“Rewarding and punishing actions by any other rule, would appear much harder to be accounted for by minds formed as he has formed ours.”—Bp. Buller.

What time he took orders, doth not appear.”Life of Buller

“ That every day has its pains and sorrows, is universally experienced."

Rem. For examples of False Syntax, see Appendix, Note G.

PREDICATES. Prin. Predicates describe their Subjects by asserting facts concerning them.



OBS.--Every Predicate must consist of a verb.-Robert studies.
And, in addition, it may have
A second Verb ... Robert does study.
A Participle. Robert is studying.
An Adjective

Robert is studious.
A Noun.

. Robert is a scholar. A Prudoun.

It is 1. If I were you. A Preposition.... Its idle hopes are cr.

It may also consist of two verbs and one or more participles, &c.We MIGHT HAVE WALKED. We MIGHT HAVE BEEN LOVED.


Rule 2. A verb must agree with its subject in Nuinber and Person.

Rem.-This rule requires that the form of a verb be determined by its Subject. Strictly speaking, Verbs live no Number and Person. "The term is used to denote a variation in the form of a verb to correspond with the Number and Person of its Subject. Thus,

In the Singular number uo suffix is used for the First Person; as, I walk, Est or st is added for the Second Person, soleinn style; as, Thou walkest. S is added for the Third Person ; as, John walks.

In the Plural Number, verbs are not varied to denote the Person of their Subjects.


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NOTE I. A verb must have a Singular form, 1. When it has one Subject in the Singular Number. EXAMPLES-" Earth KEEPS me here a while."

Man NEEDS but little here below." 2. When it has two or more Singular Subjects taken sepa rately. Examples— Philip or Edward HAS GONE to the post-office.

“The saint, the falhes, and the husband prays.” 3. When its Subject is a single Phrase or Sentence. EXAMPLES— To do good is the duty of all.

His being a scholar ENTITLES him to respect.

That all men are created equal is a self-evident truth. 4. When it is a Collective Noun conveying the idea of unity. Examples" Congress HAS ADJOURNED.”

“The regiment HAS BEEN DISBANDED." NOTE II. A verb must have a Plural form, 1. When it has one Subject in the Plural Number, or indicating plurality EXAMPLES— They LIVE-Birds FLY.

The committee ARE DIVIDED in opinion.
2. When it has two or more Subjects, taken collectively.
EXAMPLESLucy and Jane have returned.

Justice and Mercy sweetly Have embraced.
To give good gifts, and to be benevolent, are often different

things. OBS.—The logical Subject of a Sentence is sometimes the Object of a Phrase used to qualify the grammatical Subject.


1. When the Object of the Phrase is Plural in form, and indicates that the parts of which the number is composed are taken severally, the verb should be Plural. EXAMPLE-A part of the STUDENTS have left.

Here students"—the name of many taken severally—is the logical Subject of " have left," and requires the verb to be Plural, although “part,” the grammatical subject, is Singular.

2. When the Object of the Phrase is Singular, or the name of

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