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an aggregate number taken collectively, the verb should be Singular. ExamPLE-Two-thirds of my hair has fallen off.

Here - hair"—the name of many taken collectively—is the logical Subject of " has fallen," and requires the verb to be Singular, although "two-thirds," the grammatical Subject, is Plural


Note. III. Two or more Subjects taken separately and differing in Person, should have separate verbs, when the verb is varied to denote the Person of its Subject. EXAMPLE, You are in error, or I am.

Obs.—But, when the verb is not varied to denote the person, it need not be repeated. EXAMPLES—You or I MUST GO. The doctors or you are in error.

NOTE IV. When the Subject of a verb differs in Person or Number (or both) from a Noun or Pronoun in predication, the verb should agree with its Subject rather than with the word in predication. EXAMPLES—" Thou art the man." - Who art thou?"

" His meat was locusts and wild honey.'
" The wages of sin is death."

MODE AND TENSE. NOTE V. That Mode and Tense of a verb should be used which will most clearly convey the sense intended.

Obs. 1.-A verb used to denote a conditional fact or a contin gency, should have the Subjunctive or Potential form. EXAMPLES—“ WERE I Alexander, I would accept the terms.”

" So would I, WERE I Parmenio."

If we would improve, we must study. Obs. 2.- But if the condition be assumed as unquestionable, the verb may be in the Indicative Mode. EXAMPLES—" If thou hadst known.”

If John has offended you, he will make due apology.

Obs. 3.—The variations for the Potential Mode are rather variations of form, than to indicate distinctions of tense—this mode being generally indifferent as to time. ExamPLE_" would the scandal vanish with my life,

Then happy were to me ensuing death." OBS. 4.-The Infinitive present generally indicates indefinite time—the finite verb on which it depends, commonly determines its Tense. EXAMPLES—"I went to see him”-present in form, but past in sense.

I shall go to see him”-present in form, but future in


Obs. 5.- But, generally, to indicate past time, the Past Infinitive is used, except when the Infinitive follows verbs denoting purpose, expectation, wish, fc. EXAMPLES—We ought to HAVE GONE.

I purposed to write many days ago.

I expected to meet him yesterday. NOTE VI. A verb should not be used for its participle in predication.

EXAMPLE_James ought not to have went.
Corrected—James ought not to have gone.

Note VII. A participle should not take the place of its verb.

ExamPLE- I done that sum correctly.
Corrected—I did that sum correctly.

INFINITIVE. Rule. 3. A verb in the Infinitive Mode, is the object of the preposition to, expressed or understood.

Obs. 1.-The Infinitive Verb partakes much of a Substantive character-generally expressing the name of an act. Examples– { We are prepared to act.

. Obs. 2.—The Infinitive Verb is never used as a grammatical Predicate—but it is often the logical predicate of a Noun or Pronoun in the Objective Case.

EXAMPLE-I requested him to GO.

A Noun ....

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Obs. 3.-An Infinitive Verb with its proposition is used as a Phrase, and may be construed as

TO ENJOY is to obcy.
An Adjective. . Henry has a desire to imrROVE.
An Adverb.... We love to STUDY.

Obs. 4.- The Infinitive is sometimes elegantly used for one of the other modes. EXAMPLES

"11 I AM TO SETTLE this business."-Arthur.

I MUST SETTLE this business.
“The hour had come, for him to go.”- Abbott.

The hour had come, when he MUST GO.
“What is more necessary than for a pemple TO PRESERVE
what they themselves have created."-Story.

than that a people shouLD PRESERVE, &c. Obs. 5.—An Infinitive Phrase may be an Adjunct to 1. A Noun.... 6 Isaac has a desire TO IMPROVE." 2. A Pronoun. Enough for me TO KNOW." 3 An Adjective...“ Rearly TO DEPART on the morrow." 4. A Verb... “Students ought TO IMPROVE the time." 5. An Adverb.....“ He is too wise TO ERR, and loo good to BE

UNKIND.OBs. 6.-The Infinitive Verb often follows the words as and than. EXAMPLES—" An object so high as TO BE INVISIBL.F..”

“He said nothing farther than to give an apology for his

vote.” Rem-In the above and similar examples, as and than are to be regarded as Prepositions, having for their objects the Infinitive Phrases following In like manner it sometimes follows Other Prepositions.


OBS 7.-The Infinitive Phrase, like other Phrases, is sometiines independent in construction. EXAMPLE—"And, to be plain with yure, I think you the most unreasonable

of the two." OBs. 8.—The Infinitive Mode of verbs following the verbs bidt, but, dare, feel, hear, let, make, need, see, and sometimes beholil, hare, kno!on, help, obserce, preserve, and some others, do not require the preposition lo. Examples—"I plunged in, and bade him follOW."-Shakspeare.

Necessity commands me Name myself."--Idem.
He dares not do it. I let him go.
Jane helped me work that problem.
I cannoi but suspect that she assisted Lucy too.

Obs. 9.—The Infinitive verb following these verbs. is often understood.

Example—Some deemed him [ ] wondrous wise.


Rule 4. A Participle has the same construction as the “part of speech” for which it is used.

I. Participles used as Nouns. Note I. A Participle used as a Noun may be, (1.) The Subject of a sentence. EXAMPLES—" The BEGINNING of strife is as when one letteth.out water."

"The PLOWING of the wicked is sin." (2.) The Object of a verb. EXAMPLE_" While you strive to bear BEING LAUGHED AT.”— Young Lam

dies' Friend.
(3.) The Object of a preposition.

“I return to your INVITING me to your forests.”—Pope.
"Poverty turns our thoughts too much upon the suPPLYINT
of our wants: Riches, upon ENJOYING our superfluities.”

Addison. Note II. A Participle used as a Noun, i. e., as the name of an action, may be followed by an Object when it is the leader of a participial Phrase. EXAMPLES-They could not avoid GIVING offence."

“Its excesses may be restrained without DESTROYING its

istence." RECHiving goods, known to be stolen, is a criminal offence. “ Taking a madman's sword to prevent his poing mischief,

cannot be regarded as ROBBING him."

We have succeeded in MAKING A BEGINNING. Obs. 1.—Whenever a Participle is the name of an act, being, or state, it is properly called a Verbal Noun. Retaining its verbal character, it may have a Subject. It differs from a verb, however, in allowing its Subject to be in the Possessive or Objective cases. The Adjunct of a Participle is its logical Subject.

EXAMPLES. | Possessive.- We have heard of his going to the fal.s.

In the event of William's GAINING a fortune. 2. Objective. — By the CROWING of the cock we knew that morning was

nigh. OBs. 2.—The definitive, the, should be placed before a Verbal Noun whose logical Subject is the Object of the preposition of.

EXAMPLE—The PLOWING of the wicked is sin.

Obs. 3.—The definitive, the, should not be placed before a Verbal Noun whose logical Subject is in the Possessive case.

EXAMPLE—You object to my PLOWING the garden so early.

II. Participles used as Adjectives. NOTE III. A Participle used as an Adjective, belongs to Nouns and Pronouns which it describes; and may be modified by Adverbs.


Whose visages Do cream and mantle like a STANDING pond. OBS.- A Participle used to introduce a Participial Phrase performs an office more peculiar to itself than in any other condition. But even then it answers to the definition of some oth. er part of speech.


“ SUSPECTING the treachery of our guide, we made preparations for DEFENDING ourselves from any hostile attacks.

Here “Suspecting” and “defending” are Participles, each used to introduce a Participial Phrase; but

Suspecting the treachery of our “For defending ourselves," limits guide," shows a condition of “we.” the action expressed by.“preparaHence, Adjective Phrase. tions.” Hence, an Adjective Phrase.

"Suspecting" describes “we," by “Defending" is the name of an expressing, incidentally, an act of act [object of the preposition" for).” " we.” Hence, a Verbal Adjective. Hence, .....a Verbal Noun.

SUSPICIOUS of the treachery of our guides, we made preparations for defense. “Suspicious” describes “we,” by

" Defense" is a name, object of the expressing a condition or state of " we.” Hence,......

.... an Adjective. preposition “ for.” Hence, a Noun.

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