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nbs. 1.--In denoting present time, the simple form of tho Present Tense should be used when the time is indefinite. Example-Virtue is commendable-Education clevates man.
Obs. 2.-When the act, being, or state, expressed by the verb, is to be represented as definitely present or continuing, the compound form of the Present Tense should be used. EXAMPLES—I am writing—Daniel's predictions are now being fulfilled.
Obs. 3.-In expressing a past transaction which is finished, and which is definite in the mind of the speaker, we use the simple form of the Past Tense. Example—I went to Newark, to attend the Convention.
Obs. 4.-In expressing a past event, definite and continuous • (in a present and continuous state at a past time), we use the compound form of the Past Tense. Example,I was writing Wiliam a letter as he entered the room.
Obs. 5.—Generally, the compound form of a tense denotes a present state of an event (by virtne of the office of the Present Participle in predication), but the variety of time when the event was, is, or shall be, is indicated by the auxiliary verb be.
I am reading.
Reading denotes present time, } Hence, a present act at the present time.
I was reading.
Reading denotes present time, Hence, an act present at a past time.
I have been reading. Reading denotes present time,
Hence, an act present at a past timeBeen past
but in a period reaching to the present. Have
I had been reading.
teminating at a period pefore another Had
I shall be reading.
will be present at a future time.
I shall have been reading.
Hence, an act present at a time past,
when some future time will be Shall future
.Subject, Principal Parts.. Saw.
Scaling yonder peak-Adjunct of “ I."
}Adjuncts of "
Scaling ....... is (a Participle from the verb
scale) used here to describe “l.” Hence..an Adjective.
action terminates an object... Hence.. Transitive. Yonder..... ...describes peak....
Hence..a Noun. name of a class of things. .Hence.. Common. spoken of.....
Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one..
Hence.. Singular Number. object of the action expressed by “scaling”.
.Hence.. Objective Case. is used for a name..... . Hence..a Pronoun. denctes by its form the Person.. Hence.. Personal. denotes the speaker..
Hence.. First Person. denotes but one.
.Hence.. Singular Number. subject of “saw”
.. Hence.. Nominatire Case. RULE—The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nominatzve Case."
Saw.... asserts an act....
. Hence..a Verb.
Herce.. Indicative Mode. denotes time past ·
Hence.. Past Tense.
Hence Singular Number.
Hence.. Specifying. Eagle......... is a name....
.Hence. a Noun. name of a class of animals... Hence.. Common. spoken of....
..Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one.
..Hence. . Singular Number. object of action expressed by saw
... Hence.. Objective Case. Wheeling ..... is [a Participle from the verb
wheel] used here to describe
act does not pass to an object.. Hence.. Intransitive Near its brow..modifies "wheeling;” denoting place ....
..shows a relation of" wheeling"
describes by simply limiting
. Hence.. Possessive. Brow ...... is a name. ....
.Hence..a Noun. name of a class ..
Hence.. Common. spoken of......
Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one.
...Hence. . Singular Number object of relation expressed by " near".
Hence.. Objective from
“ Leaning against a tree, thoughts crowding thoughts,
I looked far out upon the ominous plain.”
Principal Parts.. Maketh .. Sredicate, Simple Sentence-Transitive,
Adjunct of " storm."
Adjunct of "calm."
.. is used for a Noun.. Hence..a Pronoun.
.. Hence, Personal.
..Hence, Third Person. denotes but one.. .Hence, Singular Number. subject of maketh. .. Hence, Nominative Case. Rule—" The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nom
inative Case.” Maketh .......... .. asserts an act..
Hence, a Verb. act passes to an object. . Hence, Transitive. act done by its subject.... Hence, Active Voice. simply declares... .Hence, Indicative Mode. denotes a present act......
..Hence, Present Tense. Predicate of “he," which is of the Third Person
Third Person Singular Number........ Hence, Sing’r Numb. RULE—“A verb must agree with its Subject in Persor
describes by simply speci-
Hence, a Noun. name of a class of things.. Hence, Common. spoken of......
Hence, ird Person. denotes but one.. .Hence, Singular Numb. object of action expressed by “maketh"
. Hence, Objective Case. RULE—" The object of an action or relation must be 27 the Objective case."
(To become) a calm..modifies "maketh”-limit
ing the act as to its result... Hence, an Adverb. A
describes " calm". Hence, an Adjective.
.Hence, a Nouu. name of a class of things.. Hence, Commun. spoken of....... . Hence, Third Person. denotes but one .... Hence, Singular Numb. used in predication with " become".
Hence, Indep'nd't Case. Rule-Note.-"A noun or pronoun used in predication
- with a verb is in the Independent Case.” Rem. The above is the correct grammatical construction of the sentence, and it is correctly passed. But without the Adjunct phrase “ to become a calm,” the word "maketh"could not properly have “storm" as its ohject. “Storm” is the Object of the modified Predicate “ makelh (causeth to become a calm."
EXAMPLES FOR PARSING.
“ Some deemed him ( ) wondrous wise.” I do not consider him to blame. I do not consider him to [be worthy of ] blame. The plan proved ] ineffectual. “Man's inhumanity to man makes countless millions ] mourn." Teach them [to yield] obedience to the laws. “I found company [
) an interruption, rather than a relief.' “One of his sovereigns thought royalty su impaired in his presence that he conspired to remove him, in order to be relieved from his superiority."
Robertson's Character of Pitt. “ Scolding has long been considered ungenteel."— Y. L. Friend.
A scrupulous attention to politeness is not only useful to prevent hurt ing the feelings of others, but it is the best shield to our own delicacy."
Young Ladies' Friend. “In the matter of giving and receiving presents, much wisdom is required.”
“Much time is frittered away in receiving and paying unmeaning visits, in stopping to talk when you ought to be doing sonicthing useful. Young Ladies' Friend.
" A task is rendered doubly burdensome by being done at an incon. renient time."--Mis. Farrar.
“Much learning shows how little mortals know.”— Young. "Some of the crew had fastened themselves to this spar, to prevent their being washed off by the waves.”—Irving.
"Possibly, your neighbor, by being less scrupulous than yourself, may invent a more expeditious way of acquiring a fortune.-Hawes.