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“ Summer's dim cloud that, slowly rising, holds
Undoubted scholarship and genuine worth.” “For this surrendering the manuscripts, I received the warm thanks of we ti ustees for the family."— Wilson's Burns, p. 21.
“It is impossible to form a just estimate of any individual character, without having divested ourselves of all those passions or prejudices which may tend to pervert our judgment.”
“ Had a stranger, at this time, gone into the province, ignorant of all that had happened in the short interval, and observing the wide and general derastation, and all the horrors of the scene; of plains unclothed and brown; of vegetables burnt up and extinguished; of villages depopulated and in ruin; of temples unroofed and perishing; of reservoirs broken down and dry; he would naturally inquire, that war has thus laid waste the fertile fields of this once beautiful and opulent country ?"
" No youth could rein the horse, hurl the javelin, chase the lion, or delight the social circle like this son."— Todd.
“For a time he stormed about the Moorish halls, and vapored about the bastions, and looked down fire and sword upon the palace of the Captain-General.”—Irving.
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.
B Let the pupil in answering these questions, give a reason for his answer, by repeating the appropriate Rule, Note, or Observation.
Earth keeps me here awhile. Why is "keeps" put in the form of the Singular Number fo- Third Person?
Philip or Edward HAS GONE to the Post Office. Why is “has gone” put in the Singular Number?
His being a scholar, entitles him to respect.
Congress has adjourned.
They live-Birds fly.
The committee are divided in opinion.
Jane and Lucy have returned. Why may we not say—has returned ?
A part of the books have been misprinted. Why may we not say-has been misprinted ?
The wages of sin is death. Why may we not say—are death?
I purposed to write many days ago. Why may we not say--1 purposed to have written ?
We ought to have gone there yesterday. Why may we not say--ought to go there yesterday? Why may we not say—ought to have went ?
I did that business according to orders.
I came yesterday and am TO RETURN to-day.
I saw him to rise and heard him to speak.
Much learning doth make thee to be mad.
I doubted his having been a soldier.
The Superintendent exhibited his method of parsing.
We could not avoid giving offence.
We have hcard of his going to the falls.
William was censured for joining the society.
Henry is reciting his lesson.
That is an example worthy to be followed. Why may we not say worthy to follow ?
7 The Teacher will extend this exercise at his pleasure, by giving cxamples from a reading lesson, or by calling the attention of the class to some of the most common errors in the use of Predicates.
Rule 5. The Object of an action or relation must be in the Objective case.
EXAMPLES-Virtue secures HAPPINESS.
We are writing LETTERS.
Scaling yonder PEAK,
Obs. 1. Action is expressed by Verbs or by Participles, Relation is expressed by Prepositions. [See the above examples.]
Obs. 2.—The Object of an action or relation may be a Noun, 9 Pronoun, a Phrase, or a Sentence.
1. A Noun... “I gave the book to Charles.”
OBs. 3.-An Auxiliary Sentence is often the logical Object of a Verb. [See Diagram 24.] EXAMPLES— And show mankind that truth has yet a friend.”—Pope.
“As foplings grin to show their teeth are white." Obs. 4.-Sometimes a Principal Sentence is thrown in between the parts of an Objective Sentence. Examples—1. “Whose charms, me thought, could never fade."
2. “This explanation, I doubt not, will satisfy him."
been going on all this time." Rem.—The scholar often finds it difficult to decide as to the proper construction of some Sentences thus placed.
Sentences of this class change by imperceptible gradations from a Principal Sentence to an unimportant Auxiliary, so that no rude can be given which will apply in all cases. Generally, however, it may be decided that when a Sentence, thus thrown in, is in its nature, as well as in its form, Principal (as Example 3 above), it should be so construed. But when it is obviously equivalent to an Adverb (as Example 2), it should be parsed as an Adjunct. “This e zplanation will doubtless satisfy him."
Ous. 5.—In position, the Objective case is commonly after the word of which it is the Object. EXAMPLES—Dennis assists JAMES
We love to study GRAMMAR.
" He wanders EARTH around.”
“And all the air a solemn stillness holds.”—Gray. OBs. 6.-A Relative Pronoun in the Objective case precedes the Verb of which it is the Object. EXAMPLE_The evil which he feared has come upon him.”
Obs. 7.—Where a Relative is the Object of a Phrase it precedes the Verb which the Phrase qualifies.
EXAMPLE-I know in whom I have believed.
Rem.-"In whom,” modifies " have believed" -and relates to person, understood.
NOTE I. A Verb may have two or more Objects,
(1.) When they are connected by Conjunctions expressed or understood. EXAMPLE—God created the heaven and the earth." (2.) When they are the names of distinct titles
or attributes of the same person or thing. EXAMPLE-By this dispensation we have lost a neighbor, a friend, a brother.
(3.) When one object is the name of a person or thing, and the other a title, acquired by the action of the verb.
EXAMPLE—They named him John.
NOTE II. When a verb in the Active Voice is followed by two Objects, it retains the latter in the Passive. EXAMPLE_He shall be named John.
NOTE III. But two or more Nouns or Pronouns, not in a similar construction, cannot be objects of the same verb.
OBs. 1.—Custom has rendered the omission of Prepositions proper after certain verbs; but in parsing their Objects, the ellipsis should be supplied.
EXAMPLE—"They carried the child HOME.”
Rem.—“Child” is the name of a young being, and, in this connection, is the proper object of “carried.". But“home” is a name applied to a habitation, a building, and “ they" probably did not "carry” that. They carried the child to some place—and that place was its home.
“He told me his history." He related to ME his history. I asked him his OPINION. “Our dear Joachim has asked me for my opinion.”-Michelet's Inuther He gave me a book. " To whom I gave the ring."
Obs. 2.-The verbs make, esteem, regard, consider, elect, bid, dare, feel, hear, see, and some others, are often followed by an Infinitive Phrase, having its Preposition (and sometimes its Subsequent) understood. EXAMPLES--"Lorenzo, these are thoughts that make* man man.”— Young.
..these are thoughts that make man (TO BE] MAN. Teach them OBEDIENCE to the laws.
Teach them [TO YIELD OBEDIENCE) to the laws. Rem.-In examples like these the second Noun or Pronoun is the Ob. ject of the Verb understood or used in predication with it. Thus "man' is used in predication with “to be” or “to become” understood; and "obedience” is the object of “yield.” EXAMPLES—Intemperance makes a man (to become) a fool. He maketh the storm [
] a calm. The people elected Harrison [to be, or for] President. NOTE IV. Intransitive Verbs have no object. EXAMPLES—1 sit-Thou art-He sleeps. . Obs. 1.-—But some Verbs commonly used Intransitively sometimes have objects of their own signification. EXAMPLES-I have fought a good fight.
We ran a race.
* The word make is generally thus used, when it signifies " to cause to be,”
;"" to cause to become.”