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Note V. A few Verbs may be used Transitively or Intransitively. EXAMPLES—The sun set in the west.

He set the inkstand on the table.
Cool blows the wind.
The wind blows the cust.
“Transitive Verbs do not admit of a Preposition after

them."Bullion's Grammar, p. 91.
We do not admit spectators.
Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds.

POSSESSIVE CASE. Rule. 6. A Noun or Pronoun in the Possessive Case, is used Adjectively. ExamPLES—Webster's Dictionary-Our neighbor.

Obs. 1.-The Possessive Case is a term applied by grammarians, with reference to the form of Nouns and Pronouns. Nouns and Pronouns in this Case do not always indicate possession; and they are also in the Nominative, Objective, and Independent Cases. Examples—The pedler deals in boy's caps and children's shoes.

“And they both beat alike-only, MINE was the quickest.”
“He is a friend of MINE," and lives next door to Smith's.
“ He related an anecdote of Dr. FRANKLIN's."

"Tune is the kingdom.” OBs. 2.-The sign of the Possessive Case is not always annexed to the name of the possessor.

1. It may be transferred to an attribute following the name of the possessor. EXAMPLES— The Pope of Rome's legate.

Whether it be owing to ihe Author of nature's acting upon

us every moment.–Bp. Butler. 2. When two or more Possessives, immediately following each other, are alike applicable to the same word, it is attached only to the last. EXAMPLES-George, James, and William's father.

A. S. Barnes & Co.'s publications. OBS. 3.-But the sign of the Possessive should be repeated 1. When one Possessive is used to specify another. EXAMPLE"Gould's Adams' Latin Grammar.2. When the Possessives describe different things. EXAMPLE_" Heroes' and Heroines' shouts confusedly rise.”

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Ors. 4.- A Noun or Pronoun in the Possessive Case, is gen erally equivalent to an Adjective Phrase.


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The people's will..

The will of the people. Webster's Dictionary

A Dictionary written by_Webster. A father's love....

The love of a father.
Boy's caps.

.Caps suitable for boys.
He heard the king's command.. The command of the king.
And saw that writing's truth". The truth of that writing.

Rem.-In the construction of Sentences, judgment and taste should decide as to the use of a Phrase, or a Possessive Adjective-no rule can be given which may be of general application.

Obs. 5.-Nouns and Pronouns in the Possessive Case often retain their substantive character, and may be qualified by other Adjectives.

Example—"And saw that WRITING's truth.” “That" specifies "writing." He saw the truth of that writing.

This observation is also applicable to other Adjectives, derived from Nouns.

"A cast iron hinge.” “Cast" qualifies "iron" -and " iron” is an Adjective.

OBs. 6.—A word in the Possessive form, is often used to specify a Phrase. EXAMPLES—"Upon Mr. Talbot's being made Lord Chancelor."

Life of Butler. “From our being born into the present world.

Butler's Analogy. Obs. 7.-In constructions like the above, the Possessive sign should not be omitted. Correct construction .... All presumption of Death's being the destruction of

living beings, must go upon the supposition that

they are compounded.-- Bp. Butler. Incorrect construction...“ Nor is there so much as any appearance of our LIMBS being endued wilh a power of moving," foc.

Bp. Butler. " A fair wind is the cause of a VESSEL sailing."

Graham's Simonymes. Rem.-In the last example, the author intended to say that wind is the cause of an act-ar act expressed by the word " sailing."

But he makes himself say that wind is the cause of a thing-a thing named by the word “ vessel.”, Corrected....

Wind is the cause of a vessel's sailing.

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Position of the Possessive. Obs. 1.--When the Possessive is used Adjective-y, it is placed before the Noun or Pronoun which it specifies. EXAMPLES—The widow's mite-The culprit's confession:

Our father and our mother. Obs. 2.-Like other Specifying Adjectives, it precedes Qualifying Adjectives belonging to the same Noun or Pronoun. EXAMPLES—"The BROOK's bright wave.”. “The wind's low sigh.”

Our devoted father, and our affectionate mother.


INDEPENDENT CASE. Rule 7. A Noun or Pronoun not dependent on any other word in construction, is in the Independent Case.

Rem.-As the grammatical subject of a Sentence is limited to the Nominative Case of Nouns and Pronouns, so the Nominative Case is properly limited to the Subject of a Sentence. Hence the term “Nominative Case Independent" is inappropriate.

Note I. The name of a person or thing addressed is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES—"FRIENDS, ROMANS, COUNTRYMEN."

“Come, gentle SPRING, ethereal MILDNESS, come." OBs. 1.- In the last example the word thou, understood, is the proper subject of come. The words“ spring” and “mildness," are addressed, and are independent in construction. The example is also applicable to Note II., because they explain who are indicated by the words “ thou," " thou," understood.

NOTE II. A Noun or Pronoun used to explain a preceding Noun or Pronoun is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES— Paul, the APOSTIE, wrote to Timothy.

Up springs the lark, shrill-voiced and shrewd,

The MESSENGER of morn."
Obs. 1.-—This note applies also to Phrases and Sentences.
EXAMPLES-It is our duty to STUDY.

"Il is possible that we AVE MISJUDGED.”
“I shall be dignified with this high honor- 10 BEAR MY


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OBS. 2.-An Independent Noun or Pronoun is properly a ogical Adjunct when it is used to describe or limit another word. EXAMPLES-Paul the APOSTLE. Peter the Great.

Rem.- Apostle” describes “ Paul,” by limiting the application of that name to a particular individual.

NOTE III. A Noun or Pronoun used as the leader of an independent phrase, is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES—The Hour having arrired, we commenced the exercises.

"Thus talking, hand in hand alonethey passed

On to their blissful bower.” NOTE IV. A Noun or Pronoun used in predication with a verb, is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLES—“Thou art a scholar." It is. I. « God is love."

He maketh the storm a calm. OBS.-A Noun or Pronoun used in predication, may have the form of the Nominative or Objective. EXAMPLES—I thought it to be him ; but it was not him.

" It was not me that you saw." Rem.-This idiom is established by good authority-ancient and mode ern—and grammarians cannot well alter the custom.

“ Nescire quid acciderit antequam natus es, est semper esse puerum.

“Not to know what happened before you was born, is always to be a boy."

Here, “puerum” (boy) has the form of the Accusative Case (objective), and cannot be the Nominative.

Note V. A Noun or Pronoun used for Euphony, is in the Independent Case. EXAMPLE—"The moon herself is lost in heaven.“

OBS.—In this note are properly included Nouns and Pronouns, repeated for the sake of cmphasis.,

“This, this is thinking free."

Note VI. A Noun or Pronoun denoting the subject of remark—the title of a book-used in address, or in exclamation, &c., is in the Independent Case.

EXAMPLES—" Our Fathers ! where are they? and the Prophets ! do they live forever ?".—"Wright's Orthography" "Davies' Mathematics”—"J.Q. Adan's, Quincy, Mass.”


Lend me your song, ye Nightingales !"








Transitive Sentence,.
Principal Parts.. Lend. Predicate,


(To) me...... Adjunct of "lend." Adjuncts...

.. Adjunct of "song." Nightingales. . Adjunct of “ye.”



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.expresses an act..... Hence..a Verb.
act passes to an object.. . Hence.. Transitive.
act, not actually done, but com-

... Hence.. Imperative Mode. denotes time present.

Hence.. Present Tense.
Predicate of" ye"

Second Person,

Plural Number.
RULEMA Verb must agree with its Subject in

Person and Number.''
(To) me. ...Phrase, modifies “lend," limit-

ing the act by denoting direc-
tion .... Adverb.
Me...... .is used for a name.

Hence..a Pronoun. denotes, by its form, the person, Hence.. Personal. denotes the speaker..

Hence..First Person. denotes but one...

Hence. . Singular Number. object of to understood. Hence.. Objective Case. RULE—" The Object of an action or relation must be

in the Objectire Case." Your. .........limits "song Adjective.
limits by specifying.. Hence.. Specifying.
specifies by denoting the source
or cause [it is put in the Pos-
sessive form]..

Hence.. Possessive. RULE_“ A Noun or Pronoun in the Possessive Case is used Adjectively."

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