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is a name

Hence..a Noun.
name of a class.

. Hence.. Common. spoken of...

Hence.. Third Person.. denotes but one.

.Hence.. Singular Number. Object of the action expressed by lend..

Hence.. Objective Case. Rule—The Object of an action or relation must be in the Objective Case." is used for a name....

Hence..a Pronoun. its form denotes its person

..Hence.. Personal. spoken 10.....

Hence.. Second Person. denotes more than one.... Hence.. Plural Number. Subject of “lend”.

. Hence.. Nominative Case. RULE—The Subject of a Sentence must be in the

Nominative Case.Nightingales.. is a name

.Hence..a Noun. name of a class ....

.Hence.. Common. spoken to....

Hence.. Second Person. denotes more than one.... Hence..

..Plural Number. not dependent on any other word (but used incidentally to explain who are meant by “ye”).

Hence.. Independent Case, RULE—“A Noun or Pronoun used to explain a preceding Noun or pronoun, is in the Independent Case."

Our Fathers ! where are they ?


Subject, Intransitive Sentence, Principal Parts..


..Predicate, Simple.

Adjunct of “ Fathers.”

.Logical Adjunct of "they."

. . Adjunct of“ are.Our ..... is an Adjective-Specifying-Possessive--Specifies “Fathers.” Fathers.. is a Noun--Common--Masculine-Third Person--Plural

Number—Independent Case-a logical Adjunct of “they.”
RULE—NOTE—“A Noun or Pronoun denoting the subject

of remark, is in the Independent Case.Where... Modifies “ are”-hence, an Adverb-ot place-Interrogative.

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Are......asserts veing-hence, a Verh Intransitive-Indicative Made

Present Tense--Third Person-Plural Number-corresponds
with “ they."
RULE A Verb must agree with its Subject in Persm

and Number." They .... is used for a name; hence, a Pronoun-Personal—Third Per

son-Plural Number-Nominative Case to“ are."
RULE—The Subject of a Sentence must be in the Nomi
native Case."

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They tell me of the Egyptian asp,

The bite of which is death
The victim yielding with a gasp,

His hot and hurried breath."
“ Ye crags and pcaks! I'm with you once again."
“Thus talking, hand in hand, alone they passed
On to their blissful bower.” -Millon.
" And hoary peaks that proudly prop,
The skies, thy dwellings are.".

“And echo conversations dull and dry,

Embellished with He said, and so said I.Cowper. s He evinced the elder brother's title to the estate, from the contradictory evidence of the witnesses, and the false reasoning of the pleaders; un. raveled all the sophistry to the very bottom, and gained a complete via tory in favor of truth and justice.”—Anon.


What is the definition of the word case, as used in grammar ?
To what class of words does the term apply?
How many cases of Nouns and Pronouns? Name them.


When must a Noun or Pronoun be in the Nominative Case ?
The Subject of a Sentence may consisť of what?
Is the Subject of a Sentence always expressed ?.
The Subjects of what Verbs are commonly understood ?
What is the natural position of the Subject of a Sentence ?
What its position in Interrogative Sentences ?
The position of who, which, and what, used as Interrogatives?
In Declaratives Modes, when may the Subject follow the Predicate's
A Phrase or Sentence used as the Subject or a Sentence, is placed wheref

When may a Nominative Phrase follow its Predicate ?
May the subject be repeated ?—When ?

The logical Subjects of Infinitive Verbs and Participles may be in what Cases ?


When must a Noun or Pronoun be in the Objective Case ?
What: words assert action? What express relation ?
What may constitute the Object of action or relation ?
How are we to decide when a sentence is Principal or Auxiliary ?
What is the natural position of the Object ?
When may a verb have two Objects ?
Are Prepositions sometimes omitted ?
What Verbs are often followed by Objective and Independent Cases ?
Do all Verbs have objects ?

What is the office of a Noun or Pronoun in the Possessive Case ?
Do these words always indicate possession ?
When is the sign of the Possessive not to be annexed ?
A Possessive is generally equivalent to what?
May they be qualified by other Adjectives?
,What should be the position of the Possessive?


When is a Noun or Pronoun in the Independent Case?
What may be the form of words in this case ?
Name the various conditions of words in the Independent Case.

PRONOUN. Rule 8. A Pronoun must agree with its Antecedent in Gender, Person, and Number.

Obs. 1.-The Antecedent of a Pronoun may be a Word, Phrase, or Sentence.

EXAMPLES. 1. A Word...." James has injured HIMSELF; he has studied too much." 2. A Phrase...." William's abandoning a good situation in hopes of a

better, was never approved by me. It has been the prime cause of all his troubles.”

“It is good to be zealously affected in a good thing." 3. A Sentence.."I am glad that Charles has secured a liberal education

it is what few poor boys have the perseverance to accomplish."

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OBS. 2.- A Pronoun may consist of a Word, Phrase, or Sen. tence.


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1. A Word .... I have treated him respectfully.
2. A Phrase...." His being a scholar entitles him to respect.”
3 A Sentence.. That goud men metimes commit faults, cannot denied.

"Much learning shows
How little mortals know.Young.
Note I. A Pronoun should have a Singular form,

a (1.) When it represents one Singular Antecedent, EXAMPLE-Henry was quite well when I last saw him.

(2.) When it represents two or more Singular Antecedents taken separately.

EXAMPLE_" The oil of peppermint, or any other volatile oil, dropped on paper will soon evaporate; no trace of it will be left."

NOTE II. A Pronoun should have a Plural forn,

(1.) When it has one Antecedent indicating Plurality: EXAMPLE–Few men are as wise as They might be.

(2.) When it has two or more Antecedents taken collectively.

EXAMPLE—Homer and Henry always accomplish what they undertake.

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS. NOTE III. The form of a Personal Pronoun, should indicate its Person and Number.

Obs. 1.--The Pronouns I and we denote the person or persons speaking or writing—“I” Singular—"we" Plural. But,

OBs. 2.-"We" is used in the Singular by Editors and Emperors. EXAMPLES—“We, Nicholas I., Emperor of all the Russias.”

"We shall present ourself as candidate at the next election." OBs. 3.--Thou is used in Solemn Style, to denote a person addressed. EXAMPLE" Thou didst weave this verdant roof." OBS. 4. -- You was formerly limited to the Second Person

Plural; but is now used in the Second Person Singular and
Plural.' Its verb is commonly in the Plural form.
EXAMPLES—“You are come too late.”

You have accomplished your object.
OBS. 5.—But it has sometimes a Singular form.
EXAMPLES—“On that happy day when you was given to the world."

Dod's Mas. “When you was here comforting me.- Pope.

“Why was you glad.”Boswell's Life of Johnson. Obs. 6.—The Pronoun "it" often has an Indefinite or undetermined Antecedent; and may then represent any Gender, Person, or Number. EXAMPLES—" It snows." " It rains.”

“It was my father.
It was the students.
A pleasant thing it is, to behold the sun.
“ If ever there was a 'people's man' in the true sense, it

was Dr. Chalmers."--B. B. Edwards. NOTE IV. Pronouns of different Persons used in the same connection, should have their appropriate position.

Obs. 1.-The Second Person is used first—the Third next, and the First last.

EXAMPLEYou and James and I have been invited.

Obs. 2.—But when a fault is confessed, this order is sometimes reversed. EXAMPLE_"I and my people have sinned.”

NOTE V. The Pronoun “them" should not be used Adjectively.

Incorrect. ..Bring me them books.
Correct... ..Bring me those books.

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RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Obs. 1.-A Relative Pronoun always performs a double office, and is used,

1. Substantively. ExamPLE-He who studies, will improve.

“Who” relates to "he," and is the Subject of studies-hence, a Substantive.

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