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2. Conjunctively-introducing an Adjective Sentence.
EXAMPLE—He who studies, will improve.
"Who studies," is a Sentence used to describe "he.”
“Who” introduces the Sentence--hence, it is used Conjunctively:

Obs. 2.- Who and whom are applied to man, and to other intelligent beings; which, to things; that, to persons or things. EXAMPLES - He THAT attends to his interior self

That has a heart and keeps it, has a mind
That hungers, and supplies it, and who seeks
A social [ ], [and seeks) not a dissipated life,

Has business."
“ Too low they build, who build beneath the stars."
He whom sea-severed realms obey.'
The books which I had lost have been returned.

" where is the patience now That you so oft have boasted to retain."--Lear, III., 6. OBs. 3.—But the name of a person taken as a name merely, or as a title, may be represented by the Relative which. EXAMPLE-Shylock-which is but another name for selfishness. Obs. 4.- Which was formerly applied to intelligent beings. EXAMPLE_" Our Father, which art in Heaven.”

Obs. 5.-When the Relative "whatis used substantively, it bears a part in the structure of two sentences at the same time. It is always equivalent to “ that which,or the things which.The Antecedent part may be the Subject (A) or Object (B) of a Principal Sentence, the Object (c) of a Phrase in that Śentence, or used in Predication (D). The Consequent or Relative part introduces an Auxiliary Sentence, which qualifies the Antecedent, and may be the Subject (E) or Objeci (G) of that Sentence, the Object of a Phrase (H), or used in Predication with a Verb (1).

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“What reason weaves, by passion is undone.”

Pope. “Deduct what is but vanity.”Idem..



“Each was favored with what he mosi delighted in."

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“It is not what I supposed it to be."

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OBs. 6.— What is sometimes a Simple Relative.
EXAMPLE~" And what love can do, that dares love attempt."— Romeo.

OBs 7.Whoever, whosoever, whatever, whatsoever, and who (used for whoever), have a construction similar to what. EXAMPLES—" Whatever purifies, fortifies also the heart.”

" Who lives to Nature, rarely can be poor,

Who lives to Fancy, never can be rich." OBs. 8.— What, whatever, and whatsoever, are often used Adjectively. EXAMPLES—What book have you.” “Whatever object is most dear.”.

Whatsoever things are honest." Obs. 9.—That is sometimes improperly used for the Relative what. EXAMPLE--Take that is thine."

Obs. 10.-- What is sometimes, substituted for an Adverbial Phrase. EXAMPLE_"What (in what respect] shall it profit a man.” Obs. 11.- What is sometimes used as an Exclamation. Example—“What! Is thy servant a dog ?"

Obs. 12.- The two words, but what, are sometimes improperly used for the Conjunction that.

EXAMPLES—“I did not doubt but what you would come.”
Corrected — I did not doubt that you would come.

Obs. 13.—The Relatives than and as have Adjectives, or Adjective Pronouns, for their Antecedents.

As, when a Relative Pronoun, has for its Antecedent the word“ such-used Adjectively, or as an Adjective Pronoun.

Than follows more, or some other Adjective, in the Comparative Degree.


" Nestled at his root
Is Beauty, such as blooms not in the glare

Of the broad sun."Bryant. “We request such of you as think we overlaud the ode, to point out one word in it ihat would be better away."Wilson's Burns.

“He has less discretion than he was famed for having."

“There is more owing her than is paid."-All's Well, 1, 3. Rem.-Let it be remembered that than and as are Substantives only when they constitute Subjects or Objects of Sentences. Most Teachers would regard those words in the examples above as thus used, but a rigid analysis of these sentences would require the ellipses to be supplied- then the words as and than would perform the office of Prepositions.

Beauty such as that which) blooms not, &c.
Less discretion than (that which) he was famed for having.


NOTE IV. The Position of Relative Pronouns
should be such as most clearly to indicate their

Obs. 1.—When a Relative is the Subject or Object of an
Auxiliary Sentence, it should be placed next its Antecedent


"Can all that optics teach, unfold

Thy form to please me so."
“The grave, that never spoke before

Hath found, at length, a tongue to chide.”
Rem.-To this rule there are exceptions.

O they love least that let men know their love.”-Shakspeare.
OBs. 2.-When the Relative is the object of a Phrase, it
comes between its Antecedent and the Auxiliary Sentence with
which that phrase is construed.

EXAMPLE-We prize that most for which we lahor most.”
Rem. For which " modifies " labor "_" which” relates to “ that."

OBS. 3.-The Relative-whether the Subject or Object of a
Sentence, or the Object of a Phrase—can rarely be omitted
without weakening the force of the expression.
EXAMPLES—"For is there aught in sleep [ ) can charm the wise ? "
“ The time may come !

] you need not fly."
“It is a questions s I cannot answer."
“History is all the light we have in many cases, and we

receive from it a great part of the useful truths we have."


Note V. Interrogative Pronouns are construed-
like Personal Pronouns.
EXAMPLES~1. As the Subject of a Sentence-Who has the .esson ?

2. As the Object of a Sentence-Whom seek ye?

3. As the Object of a Phrase-For what do we labor ?
Obs. 1.—The word which answers a question has a construc-
tion similar to that of the word which asks it.
EXAMPLES, Whose book have you? Mary's.

How long was you going? Three days.
Where did you see him ? In Rochester.

Whence came they? From Irelund.
Rem." Mary's ” specifies “book”-[during" three days," modifies

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was gone"-" in Rochester,” modifies "did see"_" from Ireland," modifies “came."

OBs. 2.—The Interrogative what, followed by the Conjunctions though, if, and some others, commonly belongs to a Principal Sentence understood, and on which the following sentence depends for sense. EXAMPLES—" What if the foot aspired to be the head ?"

What (would be the consequence) if the foot, &c.
" Whai though Destruction sweep these lovely plains.”.
What (occasion have we to despair ?] though' Destruction.


Rule 9. Adjective Pronouns are substituted for the Nouns which they qualify.

Note I. When used as Subjects, each, either, neither, this, that, and all other Adjective Pronouns indicating unity, require their verbs to be in the Singular Number.

EXAMPLES—" Each believes his own.”

Either is sufficient.

Note II. These, those, many, others, several, and other Adjective Pronouns indicating plurality, require their verbs to be in the Plural. EXAMPLES—" These are the things which defile.”

Those were halcyon days.” Note III. Any, all, like, some, none, more, and such, may have verbs in the Singular or Plural, according as they indicate unity or plurality. Examples—None but the upright in heart are capable of being true

friends." --Y. L. Friend.
6. None has arrived."
All are but parts of one stupendous whole."
" What if the field be lost? All is not lost."

The like were never seen before." Like produces like."
"Objects of importance must be portrayed by objects of
importance; such as have grace, by things graceful."

«Nestled at its root
Is Beauty; such as blooms not in the glare
Of the broad sun."

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Obs. 1.-Qualifying and some Specifying Adjectives receive the definitive "the" before them, on becoming Adjective Pronouns. They may be qualified by Adjectives or Adverbs, according as the thing or the quality is to be qualified. EXAMPLES -The Good alone are great.”

“The professedly good are not always really so."

“ The much good done by him will not soon be forgotten." Professedly” modifies the quality-hence, is an Adverb. “Much" limits the things done-hence, is an Adjective.

Obs. 2.-In the analysis of a Sentence, each other, one another, and similar distributives, are properly parsed as single words.

But in strict construction, the parts perform different offices. EXAMPLES-They assisted each other.

They assisted each (assisted] the other. Obs. 3.—When two things are mentioned in contrast, and severally referred to by Adjective Pronounsthis and these, refer to the latter-that and those, to the former.


“Here living tea-pots stand, one arm held out,

ONE bent; the handle this, and that the spout.”—Pope.
"Farewell, my friends; farewell, my roes;
My peace with these, my love with those._Burns.


He that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul.

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That fetteth | Adjunct of “ he."

He..... Subject of " loveth." Principal Parts .. Loveth..Predicate of " he.” Soul.... Object of " loveth." Complex Sentence.

Principal, Simple,

Transitive, Adjuncts.

His own..

Adjuncts of “ soul.” )

That ... Subject of “getteth.” Auxiliary Sentence. Getteth ...Predicate of that."

Auxil., Simple,

Wisdom.. Object of " getteth."

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