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John is sleepy.





A Sentence because it is an assemblage of words, so ar

66 ranged as to assert a fact."


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John," is the subject-for it is the name of the person cerning whom something is asserted.”

Is sleepy," is the predicate—for these two words “ express what is affirmed of the subject.”

Rem.-In a limited sense, a verb may be said to qualify or describe its subject. EXAMPLES—John sleeps.

Here sleps” describes a condition of “ John."
John is sleeping
Here “is sleepingasserts a condition of “ John.”

John is sleepy. In this sentence, “is sleepy" asserts a condition as definitely as do the words, “is sleeping :" and the genius of the language requires the word “sleeping” to be added to the verb “is,” in order to express the fact intended; so the other fact concerning “John" requires the worl "sleepy" to be added to the verb “is.” The sentence is not, sleeping John ismiie. exists; nor is the other, sleepy John is-i. e. exists; but “ John is slecping,and “ John is sleepy.· Sleeping” is a participle, in predication with“ is.” “Sleepy" is an adjective, in predication with “is.”

IT Let the Pupil, in like manner, construe and place in Diagrams the following additional

Examples. William is diligent,

Velvet feels smooth. James was weary.

Robert has become poor. Flowers are beautiful.

I felt languid.
Mountains are elevated.

Soldiers waxed valianto
“His palsied hand wax'd stropg."—Wilson.,
“ All earth-born cares are wrong."-Anon.
“The war is actually begun.Henry.
" The rolling year is full of thee.”
"The very streams look languid from afar.”
“ The sun looked bright, the morning after."-Sterne.

“ Vanity often renders man contemptible.
" When his weak hand grew palsied, and his eye
Dark with the nists of age, (it was his time to die.]'-Bryant

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6 God," the Subject,

See Definition 21. “ Is Love,” the Predicate, *

See Definition 22.

Other E.camples. • We are slaves."

Ye are benefactors. 16 Man is miracle."

We are friends. Thou art Peter.

Clouds are vapor. Quadrupeds are beasts. Homer and Henry are students.

ADJUNCTS. Rem.-If I say, Students deserve approbation, I make an “unqualified assertion”-applicable to all students, and to the approbation of all persons. But if I say, Diligent students deserve the approbation of their teacher, I speak only of a particular class of studentsmand of approbation, as limited to a particular source; for the word “studentis limited by the word “ diligent;" and the word “ approbation,” by the word " the," and by the phrase " of their teacher.These words and phrases are necessary, not to make the sentence, but to perfect the sense ; they are joined to other words, and are therefore called adjuncts.

Def. 24. An Adjunct is a word, phrase, or sentence, used to qualify or define another word, phrase, or sentence.

1. Word—“ We were walking homeward.Whither ? 2. Phrase—“We were walking toward home.” Whither? 3. Sentence—“They kneeled before they fought." When ?

OBS.Some adjuncts are used to qualify the principal parts of a sentence, others to qualify other adjuncts. Hence,

Adjuncts are Primary and Secondary

Def. 25. A Primary Adjunct is used to qualify one of the principal parts of a sentence.

* God is the name of a being-Love is a name of an attribute of that being. “Is Love," expresses a fact concerning God; and that fact cannot well be expressed without these two words thus combined.

EXAMPLES—The boy studies diligently-You have come late -“ Our national resources"_John's book is lost.

Def. 26. A Secondary Adjunct is used to qualify another adjunct.

EXAMPLES—The boy studies very diligently-You have come too late.

OBS.--Adjuncts are adjectives or adverbs, or they are phrases and sentences used adjectively or adverbially.

SENTENCES WITH THEIR ADJUNCTS. Our national resources are developed by an earnest culiure of the arts of peace.


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Quest. Concerning what is an assertion here made ?
Ans. Concerning resources."

What is asserted of "resources ?"
А Resources are developed."

What resources are developed ? A Nationalresources.

Whut national resources ? A. 66 Our national resources.

How are our national resources developed ? A. By an earnest culture of the arts of peace."

By what culture ? A. 66 earnest" culture.

What earnest culture? A. “ An" earnest culture.

What special culture?
4. Culture “ of the arts of peace.”

Of what arts ?
A. The arts“ of peace."




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In the above sentence what is the use of “ Our ?"

Ans. To define some particular nationas

Tesources. " national ?"

A. To tell what resources. "resources ?"


what are developed.
are developed ?" A.

what is said of resources.
" by an earnest culture
of the arts of peace ?"

A. how resources are developed. 1 an ?".


what earnest culture. " earnest ?


what culture.
“ of the arts of peace ?" A. what species of culture.
56 the ?"


what arts.
" of


what species of arts. Quest. What are the principal parts of this sentence ? Ans.Resources are developed--they "express the unqualified assertion."

What is the Subject ? A. Resources”-it is the name of that, “concerning which something

is affirmed.”

What is the Predicate? A. " Are developed—they "express what is affirmed of the subject."

What are the Adjuncts of "resources ?"
A. 66 Our" and " national.

What are the Adjuncts of" are developed ?.
A. The complex phrase, by an earnest culture of the arts of peace.

What are the Adjuncis of "culture ?
A. The words, “an," and "earnest,” and the phrase, “ of the arts of peace."

What are the Adjuncts of “ arts ?
A. The word, "the" and the phrase, “ of peace.

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DIAGRAMS. Prin. The office of a word in a sentencē, determines its position in the diagram, according to the following

GENERAL RULES. RULE 1. The principal parts of a sentence are placed uppermost, and on the same horizontal line; as 1, 2, 3.

2. The Subject of a sentence takes the first place; as 1.

3. The Predicate is placed to the right of the subject attached ; as 2–7-11-26.

4. The Object is placed to the right of the predicate; as 3. The object of a phrase is placed to the right of the

word which introduces the phrase; as 22 to the right of 21.

5. A word, phrase, or sentence, is placed beneath the word which it qualifies; as 4 and 5 qualify 1,—(25, 26, x) qualify 22.

6. A word used to introduce a phrase, is placed beneath the woru which the phrase qualifies-having its object to the right and connecting both; as 15 connecting 12 and 16-21 connecting 3 and 22.

7.. A word used only to connect, is placed between the two words connected; as 10 between 7 and 11; and a word used to introduce a sentence, is placed above the predicate of the sentence, and attached to it by a line; as O above 2.

8. A word relating back to another word, is attached to the antecedent by a line; as 6 attached to 1, and a to 22.


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Explanation of the preceding Diagram. 0-Introduces a sentence,

Rule 7.

Principal (Predicate of 1,

3—Object of 2..

4 and 5 individually, and 6 to 19 inclusive,
collectively, qualify or define 1,

5. 6-Subject of 7 and 11, and relates to 1,

2 and 8. 7-Predicate of 6,

3. 8 and 9—Modify 7,

" 5. 10_Connects 7 and 11,

7 11-Predicate of 6,

3. 12-Object of 11,

4. 13,14,15, 16, 17, 18, 19)—Qualify or define 12, 5.

5 20 and (21, 22, 23, 24)—Qualify or define 3,“ 5. 21—Shows a relation of 3 and 22,

6. 22_Object of 21,


23, 24, (25, 26, 2)—Qualify or define 22,
25—Subject of 26

26-Predicate of 25,

1-Object (understood) of 26 and relating
to 22,-

4 and 8.

LA CANN modiorno tirocini


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