Sidor som bilder

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. Note III. The Comparative Degree applies to two things or sets of things. The Superlative to inore than two.

Obs. 1.—This rule is sometimes violated by good writers. EXAMPLE-The largest boat of the two was cut loose.” — Cooper.

Obs. 2.-Comparative and Superlative Adjectives require different constructions.

1. The Comparative Degree requires the former term to be excluded from the latter.

EXAMPLE-Iron is more valuable than all other metals.

Rem.-In this example, “ Iron” is put as one term of comparison, and “all other metals” as the other term—two things are compared. Hence, the Comparative form.

2. The Superlative Degree requires the former term to be included in the latter.

EXAMPLE—Iron is the most valuable of all the metals.

Rem.--Here “all the metals” are taken severally. “Iron” is taken from the list, and put comparison with the many others—more than two things are compared. Hence, the use of the Superlative form.

OBs. 3.--Adjectives whose significations do not admit of comparison, should not have the Comparative or Superlative form. EXAMPLES--John's hoop is much more circular than mine.

Corrected—John's hoop is much more nearly circular than mine. Obs. 4.—Double Comparatives and Superlatives are improper. Example-In the calmest and most stillest night. Obs. 5.—But lesser is often used by good writers. EXAMPLE_" The lesser co-efficient.”Davies' Algebra.


OBS. 6.-Words used exclusively as Adverbs, should not be used as Adjectives. EXAMPLES—For thine often infirmities.

Corrected-For thy many or frequent infirmities. Rem.-The comparison of Adjectives is not commonly absolute, but relative. Thus, in saying this is the sweetest apple, I merely say that this apple possesses a higher degree of the quality than all other apples with which it is compared.

[ocr errors]

ADJECTIVES IN PREDICATION. Note IV. An Adjective, like Participles, &c., is used in Predication with a Verb, when the Verb requires its aid to form the Predicate. EXAMPLES—"His palsied hand waxed strong."

“Canst thou grow sad, as Earth grows bright ?Dana.

Vanity often renders man contemptible.Obs. 1.-Participles, like Verbs, sometimes require the use of Adjectives in Predication. EXAMPLE— The desire of being happy, reigns in all hearts.”

OBS. 2.--Adjectives used in Predication, should not take the Adverbial form. ExamPLE-I feel badly to-night. CorrectedI feel bad io-night.

SPECIFYING ADJECTIVES. NotE V. Specifying Adjectives restrict their Nouns, without denoting quality.

OBs.1.-Specifying Adjectives should not be used before Nouns taken in a general sense. EXAMPLES—Wisdom is better than rubies—not the wisdom.

Iron is the most useful of metals-not the iron. Obs. 2.Either and neither always should relate to one of two, taken separately.

Each and every may relate to one or both of two things, taken separately.

Note VI. Possessive Adjectives describe Nouns and Pronouns, by indicating possession, fitness, origin, condition, &c., &c.


Boys' caps..

" Boys'” denotes the size of the caps. Webster's Dictionary...“ Webster's " denotes the author. Heaven's immortal Spring shall yet arrive,

And man's majestic beauty bloom again,

Bright through the eternal year of Love's majestic reign."-Beatlie. I neard of Peter's buying John's horse.” Rem.--I heard of a certain act-an act of which Peter was the agenthence, it was Peter's act. The act is expressed by the word " buying hence, the word "Petez's' limits, describes the word “buying;' and is, therefore, an Adjective

The object of Peier's act is “horse.” The word “ John's " is used to jimit that object, not to a particular race, or color, or size, but to a particular condition. “ John's," therefore, describes “horse"-hence, it is an Adjective.

NOTE VII. Possessive Adjectives derived from Pronouns, should correspond in Gender, Person, and Number to the Pronouns from which they are derived. EXAMPLES—I have finished my work.

He has established his reputation.
They have accomplished their object.

We must attend to our interests.
Obs. 1.-Possessive Adjectives are sometimes qualified by
Sentences introduced by Relative Pronouns, and by Phrases.


“How various his employments, whom the world calls idle."

Wilson's Burns. I have spoken of his eminence as a judge. Obs. 2.—Possessive Adjectives, in addition to their primary vffice, sometimes introduce Auxiliary Sentences.


“ All are but parts of one stupendous whole,

Whose body. Nature ismand God the soul.”—Pope. “Heaven be their resource, who have no other but the charity of the world.-Sterne.

NOTE VIII. A Participle is an Adjective, when-
ever its principal office is to describe a Noun or
EXAMPLES—A standing tree. Blasted fruit. Crushed sugar. For the

time being.
“ Truth, crushed to carth, will rise again;

But error, wounded, writhes in pain.”
"The orator, standing on the plaiform, thus began.”
" The doctor, being then in the house, was called to his bed-

side." Rem. That the first four Participles in the above examples, are Ad. jectives, all grammarians consent. But, in regard to the last form, there is not a gencral agreement. It is maintained that Participles having their appropriate position after the Nouns or Pronouns to which they belong, shoard not be regarded as Adjectives--but simply as Participles,

On the other hand, it is maintained, that Qualifying Adjectives often find a place after their Nouns-as he is a kind father, but an UNKIND hushand-he is a man kind to his children, but often UNKIND to his wife Here, it is allowed, that the change of position does not make a change in the office of the words. It is a general rule in the use of Adjectiveshaving, it is true, many exceptions—that they precede their Nouns when they are used without. Adjunct Phrases; but when they are modified by Plırases, they follow the words which they qualify. (See page 159, obs. 4.)

The disagreement in regard to these words, is one of names merely, for all grammarians agree that they are Participles, and that they " belong ta Nouns and Pronouns which they describe," and they disagree only in this one party insist upon adding the name Adjective to that of Participle, by virtue of their office; whereas, others do not think it expedient to add an. other name.

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

Principal Parts .... {Truth.


Will rise

Crushed to earth.. ..... Adjunct of " truth."

..Adjunct of "will rise."

Predicate,} Simple Sentence,


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors] a name..

Hence..a Noun. name of principle personified. Hence., Proper. spoken of.....

.. Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one...

Hence.. Singular Number, subject of “ will rise".

. Hence. . Nominative Case. RULEThe Subject of a sentence must be in the Nom

inative Case."
Crushed ... describes “ truth” as to condition. Adjective.

derived from the verb " crush”... Hence.. Verbal.
has 10 object....

.Hence.. Intransitive.
RULE- Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns,

which they describe." To earth...modifies "crushed”. Adverb, denotes direction...

Hence.. Adverb of place



Hence..a Preposition,
.Hence..a Noun.
Hence.. Common.

Hence.. Third Person.
...Hence.. Singular Number.


[ocr errors]

.shows a relation of "crushed" and

" earth" Earth ...... is a name...

name common to a class..
spokrn of...
denotes but one...
object of the relation expressed by

.Hence.. Objective Case.
RULE— The Object of an action or relation must be in

the Objective Case.Will rise... asserts an action....

..Hence..a Verb.
act does not pass to an Object....Hence., Intransitive.
simply declares..

.Hence.. Indicative Mode. denotes a future act.

.Hence.. Future Tense. predicate of "truth”....

.Hence { Singular Number

RULE_" A Verb must agree with its Subject in Person

and Number.Again .....modifies “ will rise".. Adverb.

denotes a future repetition....... Hence.. Adverb of time.


Adjective Words.
"THE wild gazelle on Judah's hills,

Exulting, yet may bound,
And drink from ALL THE LIVING rills,

That gush on Holy ground ;
ITS AIRY step and GLORIOUS eye,
May glance in TAMELESS transport by.”

Adjeclire Phrases.
« For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast,
And breathed in the face OF THE FOE as he passed."

Adjective Sentences.
“Guard us, o Thou who never sleepest.

Bid the prophet's form appear.”
« From the last hill thaT LOOKS ON THY ONCE HOLY DOME."
“O lovely voices of the sky,

Aie ye not singing still on high,

" Among the faithless, faithful only he
Among innumerable false.”-Milton.

« FöregåendeFortsätt »