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Rule 11. Adverbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs, which they modify.
OBS. 1.-An Adverb may be a Word, Phrase, or Sentence.
1. A Word.....I will go soon.
2. A Phrase....I will go in a short time.
3. A Sentence.."I shall go ere day departs."-Taylor.
OBS. 2.-An Adverb may modify a Word, Phrase, or Sen
1. A Word.....
Heman studies DILIGENTLY.
2. A Phrase.... Robert went ALMOST to Boston.
"Practical knowledge can be gained ONLY in this way." 3. A Sentence.. Mozart, JUST before he died, said, "Now I begin to learn what might be done in music."
OBS. 3.-Negative Adverbs are used primarily to modify Verbs.
EXAMPLE" They wept NOT."
2. To modify Adjectives.
EXAMPLES-Nor one of the family was there.
"Nor every one that saith unto me, Lord! Lord! shall enter
into the kingdom of heaven."
3. To modify other Adverbs.
EXAMPLES He is NOT generally in error.
"They died NOT by hunger or lingering decay,
The steel of the white man hath swept them away."
"NoT as the conqueror comes.
They, the true hearted, came."
Rem -The influence of the Negatives, not, neither, &c., is often exerted on Nouns, Phrases, or whole Sentences. And, generally, when a Nega rive occurs in connection with other Adjuncts, the influence of the Negative reaches the whole proposition, including the other Adjuncts.
OBS. 4.-The Adverbs yes, yea, no, nay, are independent in construction.
Rem. The relation of these words to others in the sentence or period is logical, rather than grammatical.
OBS. 5.-A negation allows but one negative in the same connection.
EXAMPLE-He did NOT perceive them.
But double negatives are often elegantly used for an affirma tive.
EXAMPLE "Such perplexities are not uncommon."
OBS. 6-The words which Adverbs properly modify are
EXAMPLE-Thou canst but add one bitter wo
To those [ ] already there.
OBS. 7. Adverbs sometimes take the place of verbs, which they modify.
EXAMPLES " Off, off, I bid you!" "To arms!"
"Back to thy punishment, false fugitive!"
OBS. 8.-Adverbs sometimes take the place of Nouns, and bence become Pronouns.
EXAMPLES" Till then"-for, till that time.
"From there"-for, from that place.
And i have made a pilgrimage from far."-Hosmer. "Oh, let the ungentle spirit learn from hence
A small unkindness is a great offence."
OBS. 9-Participles become Adverbs when they indicate the manner of an action, or modify a quality.
"The surging billows and the gamboling storms
"Now it mounts the wave,
And rises, threatening, to the frowning sky." ""Tis strange, 'tis passing strange."
"A virtuous household, but exceeding poor."
OBS. 10.-A. few words, commonly used as Prepositions, are
sometimes used Adverbially.
EXAMPLES "Thou didst look down upon the naked earth."
"And may at last my weary age,
Find out the peaceful hermitage."-Milton.
NOTE I. The position of Adverbs should be such as most clearly to convey the sense intended.
OBS.-In constructing a Sentence, judgment and taste are the only true criteria. No definite rule can be given. When Adverbs modify Adjectives and other Adverbs, they are commonly placed before the words which they modify. When they modify Verbs they may generally be placed before or after. Negatives are placed after the Verb.
The Adverb is placed immediately after the first word of a . Predicate, when it consists of more than one word.
EXAMPLES-You are NOT the man.
I have GFTEN seen him.
NOTE II. In the use of Adverbs, that form of words should be adopted, which is in accordance with the best authority.
OBS. 1.-Most Adverbs are derivative words, and are generally formed by adding ly (formerly written lie-a contraction of like) to its primitive.
EXAMPLES-A just man will deal justly.
A foolish man will act foolishly.
OBS. 2.-Generally the Adjective form is given when the word expresses the result of the action of a verb upon its subject. EXAMPLES "The house was painted green."
"Open thy mouth wide."
NOTE III. Adjectives used in predication with verbs, should not take the Adverbial form.
The orange tasted sweet.
The velvet feels smooth.
How sweetly did that orange taste.
Incorrect construction......William feels badly to-night.
NOTE IV. Adverbs of time should indicate the time intended.
Incorrect construction.. .It was Now, too, mid-winter.
ADVERBIAL PHRASES AND SENTENCES.
ОBS.-Phrases and Sentences are properly called Adverbial, when they perform the office of Adverbs.
Rem.-Adverbs occur more frequently in the form of Phrases and Sentences, than in that of Words.
Subject, Simple Sentence,
. Hence..a Noun.
..Hence.. Masculine Gender
Hence.. Singular Number.
RULE "The Subject of a sentence must be in the Nom
asserts an act....
does not pass to an object.... ... Hence.. Intransitive.
denotes a past act....
. Hence.. Indicative Mode.
.. Hence.. Past Tense.
Hence Third Person,
RULE " A Verb must agree with its Subject in Person and Number."
Almost..... modifies "to Boston".
Hence.. an Adverb.
RULE " Adverbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and other
To Boston.. modifies "went"..
. Hence..an Adverb.
... Hence.. Adverb of place.
RULE " Adverbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and other
Adverbs, which they modify."
.shows a relation of "went" and
Boston .....is a name............
appropriated to one of many cities Hence.. Proper.
..Hence.. Third Person.
. Objective Case.
RULE " The object of an action or relation must be in the Objective Case."
The glassy waters mirror FORTH his smiles."
"For the angel of death spread his wings oN THE BLAST,
"From the last hill that looks ON THY ONCE HOLY DOME." "IN AN UNEXPECTED HOUR they were startled BY THE THUNDER OF THE CANNON."
"The man that dares traduce, BECAUSE HE CAN WITH SAFETY TO HIMSELF is not a man."
"And breathed in the face of the foe AS HE PASSED.' "9
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.
What is an Adjunct of a Sentence?
What classes of words are used as Adjuncts?
Adjuncts may belong to what?
What is an Adjective?
Adjectives belong to what classes of words?
When is a word an Adjective?
Adjectives may consist of what?
What is the natural postioin of Adjectives?
What is the position when it is limited by a Phrase?
The position when many Adjectives belong to the same Noun ?
What is a Numeral Adjective?
May a Singular and a Plural Adjective belong to the same Noun ?