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ADVERBS Rule 11. Adverbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs, which they modify.

Obs. 1.-An Adverb may be a Word, Phrase, or Sentence.

EXAMPLES.

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1. A Word.....I will go soon.
2. A Phrase....I will go in a short time.
3. A Sentence..“ I shall go ere day departs.Taylor.

Obs. 2.-An Adverb may modify a Word, Phrase, or Sen tence.

1. A Word..... Heman studies DILIGENTLY.
2. A Phrase.... Robert went ALMOST to Boston.

“Practical knowledge can be gained only in this way.3. A Sentence.. Mozart, just before he died, said, "Now I begin to learn

what might be done in music.”

NEGATIVE ADVERBS. OBs. 3.–Negative Adverbs are used primarily to modify Verbs. EXAMPLE They wept not.” 2. To modify Adjectives. EXAMPLES--Not one of the family was there.

“Not every one that saith unto me, Lord! Lord ! shall enter

into the kingdom of heaven.” 3. To modify other Adverbs. EXAMPLES—He is not generally in error.

"They died not by hunger or lingering decay,
The steel of the white man hath swept them away."

"Nor as the conqueror comes.

They, the true hearted, came.” Rem -The influence of the Negatives, not, neither, &c., is often exerted on Nouns, Phrases, or whole Sentences. And, generally, when a Nega. tive occurs in connection with other Adjuncts, the influence of the Negatire reaches the whole proposition, including the other Adjuncis.

Obs. 4.-The Adverbs yes, yea, no, nay, are independent in construction.

Rem.—The relation of these words to others in the sentence or perioc. is logical, rather than grammatical.

Obs. 5.-A negation allows but one negative in the same connection.

EXAMPLE-He did not perceive them.

But double negatives are often elegantly used for an affirma tive. EXAMPLE="Such perplexities are not uncommon.”

OBS. 6.—The words which Adverbs properly modify are sometimes understood. EXAMPLE_Thou canst but add one bitter wo To ihose

) alrcady there. Obs. 7. Adverbs sometimes take the place of verbs, which they modify. EXAMPLES L" Off, of, I bid you!" " To arms !"

Back to thy punishment, faise fugitive !" Obs. 8.—Adverbs sometimes take the place of Nouns, and bence become Pronouns. EXAMPLES - Till then-lor, till that time.

“From there"-lor, from that place.
“And I have made a pilgrimage from far.Hosmer.
“Oh, lei the ungentle spirit learn froin hence

A small unkindness is a great offence." Obs. 9.- Participles become Adverbs when they indicate the manner of an action, or modify a quality.

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EXAMPLES.

" The surging billows and the gamboling storms
Come, crouching, to his feet."

“Now it mounts the wave,
And rises, threatening, to the frowning sky."
« 'Tis strange, 'tis passing strange.”

"A virtuous household, but exceeding poor.” Obs. 10.-A few words, commonly used as Prepositions, are sometimes used Adverbially. EXAMPLES—"Thou didst look down upon the naked earth.”

"And may at last iny weary age,
Find out the peaceful hermitage."--Millon.

POSITION. Note I. The position of Adverbs should be such as most clearly to convey the sense intended.

Obs.-In constructing a Sentence, judgment and taste are the only true criteria. No definite rule can be given. When Adverbs modify Adjectives and other Adverbs, they are commonly placed before the words which they modify. When they modify Verbs.. they may generally be placed before or after.

But Negatives are placed after the Verb.

The Adverb is placed immediately after the first word of a Predicate, when it consists of more than one word. EXAMPLES-You are not the man.

I have OFTEN seen him. Note II. In the use of Adverbs, that form of words should be adopted, which is in accordance with the best authority.

Obs. 1.—Most Adverbs are derivative words, and are gener ally formed by adding ly (formerly written lie-a contraction of like) to its primitive. EXAMPLES—A just man will deal justly.

A foolish man will act foolishly. Obs. 2.—Generally the Adjective form is given when the word expresses the result of the action of a verb upon its subject. ExampleS—" The house was painted green."

“Open thy mouth wide." Note III. Adjectives used in predication with verbs, should not take the Adverbial form. Correct construction.

The orange tasted sweet.

The velvet feels smooth. Incorrect construction..

| How sweetly did that orange taste.

William feels badly to-night. NOTE IV. Adverbs of time should indicate the time intended.

Incorrect construction ...... It was now, too, mid-winter.

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ADVERBIAL PHRASES AND SENTENCES. Obs.-Phrases and Sentences are properly called Adverbial, when they perform the office of Adverbs.

Rem.. Adverbs occur more frequently in the form of Phrases and Sen. tences, than in that of Words.

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Principal Parts.... { Robert

Subject, Simple Sentence,

Predicate, / Intransitive. Adjuncts.. $ To Boston.

.. Adjunct of : went." Almost..

. Adjunct of " to Boston."

PARSED. Robert......is a name...

Hence..a Noun. appropriated to an individual....Hence.. Proper. denotes a male....

.Hence.. Masculine Gender spoken of....

.Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one,

.Hence..Singular Number. subject of “ went",

... Hence.. Nominative Case. RULE— The Subject of a sentence must be in the Nom

inative Case." Went. .... asserts an act...

Hence..a Verb.
does not pass to an object. .Hence. . Intransitive.
simply declares..

. Hence.. Indicative Mode. denotes a past act.

..Hence.. Past Tense. predicate of “Robert”....

.Hence { Singular Number.

Third
RULE—5 A Verb must agree with its Subject in Person

and Number." Almost .....modifies " to Boston”

Hence..an Adverb.
RULE—“ Adverbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and other

Adverbs, which they modify."
To Boston..modifies "went"....

.Hence..an Adverb. denotes place..

.. Hence.. Adverb of place. RULEAdrerbs belong to Verbs, Adjectives, and other

Adverbs, which they morlify." To ........ shows a relation of " went” and 6 Boston”

.Hence..a Preposition.

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Boston .....is a name........

.Hence,.a Noun. appropriated to one of many cities Hence.. Proper. spoken of....

.Hence.. Third Person, denotes but one....

.Hence.. Singular Number. object of the relation expresssd by

.Objective Case. RULE—" The object of an action or relation must be in the Objective Case."

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EXAMPLES.

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Adverbial Words.

« BRILLIANTLY
The glassy waters mirror FORTH his smiles."
“ How LIGHTLY mounts the Muse's wing,
Whose theme is in ihe skies."

Adverbial Phrases.
“For the angel of death spread his wings ON THE BLAST,
And breathed IN THE FACE OF THE FOE as he passed."

Fools die FOR LACK OF KNOWLEDGE. " Froin the last hill that looks on THY ONCE HOLY DOME." “IN AN UNEXPECTED HOUR they were startled BY THE THUNDER OF THE CANNON.

Adverbial Sentences. “The man that dares traduce, BECAUSE HE CAN WITH SAFETY TO HIMSELI is not a man."

“ And breathed in the face of the foe AS HE PASSED.”
“ And Truth is hashed, THAT HERESY MAY PREACH.'
“ WHEN THE NIGHT STORM GATHERS DIM AND DARK,

WITH A SHRILL AND BODING SCREAM,
Thou rushest BY THE FOUNDERING BARK,
Quick AS A PASSING DREAM.

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.
What is an Adjunct of a Sentence ?
What classes of words are used as Adjuncts 3
Adjuncts may consist of what?
Adjuncts may belong to what ?

ADJECTIVES.
What is an Adjective ?
Adjectives belong to what classes of words ?
When is a word an Adjective ?
Adjectives may consist of what?
What is the natural postioin of Adjectives ?
What is the position when it is limited by a Phrase ?
The position when many Adjectives belong to the same Noun?
What is a Numeral Adjective?
Vay a Singular and a Plural Adjective belong to the same Noun ?

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