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May Numerals qualify or specify each other?
What is an Adverb ?
PREPOSITION. Rule 12. A Preposition shows a relation of its object to the word which its Phrase qualifies.
Obs. 1.--The ohject of a Preposition may be
Comes there from Siberian WASTES of snow.”
He inal is not for me, is against me.' An Adjective " He has taded liom earth like a star from on high.” An Adverb “ A voice. from WHENCE I knew not.” A Participle. “ Cora is always delighted with SINGING.” A Verb.
“ TO SLEEP-perchance to DREAN!" A Phrase.. " Fiom AMONG THOUSAND CELESTIAL ARDORS.' A Senience. " 7WHERE The river mixes with the main."
Rem.- A perfect construction of the last and similar examples would supply a Noun as the object of the Preposition.
EXAMPLE_Tofthe point) where the river mixes with the main."
Rem.--Scholars often find it difficult to determine the Antecedent term of a relation expressed by a Preposition-examples sometimes occur in which the relation of the object of a Preposition seems to exist, not to any word, but to the whole Sentence. Generally, however, this question can be seitled by ascertaining which word is qualified by the Phrase introduced by a Preposition—that word is the Anticedent term of relation.
EXAMPLE.-" The doctor is a man of science."
is the Antecedent term of relation--and the Phrase is Adjective.
“ The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the ka." Here “o'er the lea” modifies “ winds "-nence,“ winds” is the Antece. dent-and the Phrase is Adverbial.
“And leave the world to darkness and to me Flere " to darkness and to me” modifies "leave”-hence leave is the Antecedent and the Phrase is Adverbial.
“ Which flung its purple o'er his path to heaven.' Here “ to heaven" modifies leading (or a word of similar office), unCerswood-hence, “ leading is the proper Antecedent and the Phrase is Ad ercial. But the Complex Phrase, leading to heaven qualifies "path"- hence, “path” is 'its Antecedent-and the Complex Phrase, · leading to heaven," is Adjective. (See page 94, note.]
Obs. 2.- Double Prepositions are sometimes allowed.
“There can be no question as to which party must yield.” Obs. 3.—But two Prepositions should not be used, when one of them will fully express the sense intended. ExamPLES—"Near to this dome is found a path so green.”-Shenstone.
“Not for to hide it in a hedge."--Burns. Obs. 4.—Prepositions are sometimes used in predication with Verbs.
EXAMPLE-Its idle hopes are o'er.
Rem.-This construction of the Preposition obtains most frequently with the Passive Voice of Verbs whose Active form would be modified by a Phrase; on changing the voice of the Verb from Active to Passive, the Preposition introducing that Phrase is retained in predication.
Famished and chilled THROUGH ways unknown.” OBs. 6.—But, by the poets, it is often placed after its object.
" What seemed his head,
OBs. 8.-A Preposition commonly indicates the office of the Phrase which it introduces.
EXAMPLE—[See page 95.)
Note I. Care should be exercised in the choice of Prepositions.
Obs. 1.-The particular Preposition proper to introducer given Phrase depends
1. Usually on the word which the Phrase is to qualify. 2. Sometimes on the object of the Phrase.
Engaged in a business.
Made of a thing.
by a person.
in a place. Ask of a person.
Rule over a person. for a thing
in a manner. Believe in the doctrine.
Dependent upon a person.
for a thing.
Familiar to a person.
with a thing.
Worthy of Obs. 2.-When the second term of a Comparison is expressed by a Phrase
After a Superlative, the Preposition of is commonly used. After a Comparative, the Preposition than is commonly used. EXAMPLES -Grammar is the most interesting of all my studies.
Grammar is more interesting than all my other studies. Obs. 3.—When the second term of a Comparison of equality is a Noun, or Pronoun, the Preposition as is commonly usedtometimes like is used. EXAMPLES—“He hath died to redeem such a rebel as me."— Wesley.
“ An hour like this, may well display the emptiness of hu
Obs. 4.-Some writers substitute the words for and with.
“ It implies government of the very same kind with that which a mas. ter exercises over his servants.”—Bp. Butler.
“Mr. Secor found means to have Mr. Butler recommended to him (Lord Talbot) for his chaplain.”—Life of Dr. Buller.
Obs. 5.-Adverbial Conjunctions are sometimes used for Ad. verbial Phrases. EXAMPLES—Where-for in which.
Wher-for at which time.
Where Hope and Fear maintain eternal strife !"
CONJUNCTIONS. Rule 13. Conjunctions introduce Sentences and connect Words and Phrases.
Rem.-Conjunctions differ from Prepositions in not expressing a relation of the words connected.
Obs. 1.—Conjunctions may be omitted when the connection is sufficiently clear without them. EXAMPLES—“Unnun.bered systems, [ ) suns, and worlds,
Unite to worship thee;
Space, í ] Time, [ ] Eternity.”
“Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour
(For) England hath need of thee.”- Wordsworth. Obs. 3.—Relative Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives derived from them. serve, in addition to their primary office, to introduce Auxilia.y Sentences. EXAMPLES—"He who filches from me my good name
Robs me of that which not enriches him.”
“Tho.i hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea.” Obs. 4.—The Conjunction that often introduces a sentence which is the logical object of a verb or participle going before in construction. EXAMPLE_"The creditor demanded that payment should be made."
[See Diagram, p. 32.]
Obs. 5.-Conjunctions that introduce Auxiliary Sentences, and some others, indicate the offices of the Sentences which they ntroduce.
If, Unless, &c., indicate condition.
Speak of me as I am-nothing extenuate
Nor set down aughi in malice." OBs. 6.—The Adverb “how” is sometimes improperly used instead of the Conjunction “ that.” EXAMPLE-- She tells me how with eager speed
He New to hear my vocal reed.”—Shenstone. Obs. 7.—Conjunctions sometimes introduce the remnant of a Sentence. EXAMPLE—Though [ ] aflicted he is happy.
OBs. 3.- Words connected by Conjunctions have a similar construction. EXAMPLES God created the hearen AND the carth."
“Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to hope."
“ A great and good man has fallen.” Rem.-- Heaven” and “earth" are alike Objects of " created."
Slept” and “ lent" are Predicates of “ Time.”
“Great” and “good” describe “man.”. Obs. 9.—But they have not necessarily similar modifications. EXAMPLE_"Every teacher has and must have his own particular way of imparting knowledge.”—McElligott.
Rem.-" Has” and “must have" are Predicates of " teacher”-but they are not of the same Mode 'nor Tense.
Obs. 10.—Position.—The proper place for a Conjunction is before the sentence which it introduces, and between the words or phrases which it connects. EXAMPLE— And there lay the rider, distorted. AND pale,
With the dew on his brow and the rust on his mail." OBS. 11.—But, in complex sentences, the Conjunction introducing the Principal Sentence is commonly placed first, and that introducing the Auxiliary Sentence immediately following. EXAMPLE_" AND when its yellow lustre smiled
O'er mountains yet untrod,
To bless the bow of God."