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May Numerals qualify or specify each other?
When may an Adjective be used in Predication ?
What should be the form of Adjectives in Predication ?
What is the office of Specifying Adjectives?
When is it improper to use Specilying Adjectives ?
What is the office of Possessive Specifying Adjectives ?
When is a Parii.. iple an Adjective ?

ADVERBS.

What is an Adverb?
Adverbs no site whai classes of words?
An Adverb may consist of what?
Ngalive Adverbs have whal peculiarity?
Whai Allverbs are Independeni in Construction ?
When may two Negatives he allowed in a Semence?
Adverbs may take the place or what other class of words?
When is a Participle an Adverb?
What should be the position of Adverbs ?
What peculiarity in the form of Adverbs ?
Adverbs of Time should designate what?

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PREPOSITION. Rule 12. A Preposition shows a relation of its object to the word which its Phrase qualifies.

Obs. 1.--The object of a Preposition may be
A Nom.

Cumes there from Siberian wastes of snow."
A Pronoun

He that is not for me, is against ME.
An Adjective He has faded from earth like a star from on high."
AU Adverb " A voice. from WHENGE I knew not.”
A Parliciple. “ Cora is always delighted with SINGING.”,
A Verb.:

TO SLEEP-perchance to DREAM !”
A Phrase.. " Fiom AMONG THOUSAND CELESTIAL ARDORS."
A Senience. “T, WHERE the river mixes with the main."

Rem.--A perfect construction of the last and similar examples would supply a Noun. as the object of the Preposition.

EXAMPLE-TO (the point) where the river mixes with the main."

Rom.-Scholars often find it difficult to determine the Antecedent term of a relation expressed by a Preposition-examples sometimes occur in which the relation of the object of a Preposition seems to exist, not to any word, but to the whole Sentence. Generally, however, this question can be seitled by ascertaining which word is qualified by the Phrase introduced by a Preposition--that word is the Antecedent term of relation.

EXAMPLE.- - The doctor is a man of science."

Here the Phrase "of science" qualifies "man"-hence, “man is the Antecedent term of relation--and the Phrase is Adjective.

* The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea." Here "o'er the lea" modifies winds "-nence,“ winds" is the Antece. dent and the Phrase is Adverbial.

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177

“And leave the world to darkness and to me Flere "to darkness and to me” modifies "leave".--hence leave is the Antecedent-and the Phrase is Adverbial.

" Which flung its purple o'er his path to heaven.' Here “ to heaven" modifies leading (or a word of similar office), unCersiood-hence, “ leading " is the proper Antecedent-and the Phrase is Ad ertial. But the Complex Phrase, “ leading to heaven qualifies path”- hence, “path” is 'iis Antecedent-and the Complex Phrase, leading to heaven,” is Adjective. [See page 94, note.]

Obs. 2.-Double Prepositions are sometimes allowed.
EXAMPLES" Out of every grove the voice of pleasure warbles.”

“There can be no question as to which party must yield." OBs. 3.-But two Prepositions should not be used, when one of them will fully express the sense intended. ExampleS—" Near to this dome is found a path so green.”-Shenstone.

Not for to hide it in a hedge."--Burns. Obs. 4.—Prepositions are sometimes used in predication with Verbs.

EXAMPLE--Its idle hopes are o'er.

Rem. This construction of the Preposition obtains most frequently with the Passive Voice of Verbs whose Active form would be modified by a Phrase; on changing the voice of the Verb from Active to Passive, the Preposition introducing that Phrase is retained in predication.

EXAMPLES.

Active..
Passive.

.I have attended to your business.
Your business has been altended to by me.

POSITION. Obs. 5.—The proper place for a Preposition is (as its name implies) before the Phrase which it introduces. EXAMPLES—"In dread, in danger, and alone,

Famished and chilled THROUGH ways unknown.” OBs. 6.—But, by the poets, it is often placed after its object.

EXAMPLE

" What seemed his head,
The likeness of a kingly crown had on."-Milton.
Obs. 7-And sometimes in colloquial style.
EXAMPLE="You will have no mother or sister to go to."-Abbott.
Rem.-This idiom is inelegant, and not to be recommended.

OBs. 8.--A Preposition commonly indicates the office of the
Phrase which it introduces.
EXAMPLE_[See page 95.]

g*

NOTE I. Care should be exercised in the choice of Prepositions.

OBS. 1.-The particular Preposition proper to introduce. given Phrase depends—

1. Usually on the word which the Phrase is to qualify. 2. Sometimes on the object of the Phrase.

EXAMPLES.

66

66

Accommodate to.

Engaged in a business.
Accord with.

Insist upon.
Accuse of.

Made of a thing. · Acquit of.

by a person. Acquainted with.

in a place. Ask of a person.

Rule over a person. for a thing:

« in a manner. Believe in the doctrine.

Unite with-to-in. on the name.

Abhorrence of
Bestow upon.

Agreeable to.
Betray to a person.

Averse to-from.
into a thing.

Compliance with.
Boast of.

Conformable to.
Call on a person.

Dependent upon a person.
at a place.

for a thing.
Compare wilh-to.

Difficulty in-with.
Concur with-in.

Eager in-for.
Copy after a person,

Equal towith.
" from a thing.

Familiar to a person.
Die by violence.

with a thing.
of a disease.

Need of.
Differ.from.

Prejudice against.
Diminish from.

Regard to-for.
Dissent from.

True to.
Engaged to a person.
for a time.

Worthy of Obs. 2.-When the second term of a Comparison is expressed by a Phrase

After a Superlative, the Preposition of is commonly used. After a Comparative, the Preposition than is commonly used. EXAMPLES -Grammar is the most interesting of all my studies.

Grammar is more interesting than all my other studies. Obs. 3.—When the second term of a Comparison of equality is a Noun, or Pronoun, the Preposition as is commonly used cometimes like is used. EXAMPLES “ He hath died to redeem such a rebel as me."— Wesley.

“An hour like this, may well display the emptiness of hu

man grandeur.”

Value upon.

Obs. 4.—Some writers substitute the words for and with.

EXAMPLES.

“It implies government of the very same kind WITH THAT which a mas. ter exercises over his servants.”Bp. Butler.

“ Mr. Secor found means to have Mr. Butler recommended to him [Lord Talbot] for his chaplain.”Life of Dr. Butler.

Obs. 5.—Adverbial Conjunctions are sometimes used for Ad. verbial Phrases. EXAMPLES—Where-for in which.

Wher for at which time.
“O impoient estate of human life,

Where Hope and Fear maintain eternal strife !"
“So said, hiz o'er his sceptre bowing, rose
From the right hand of glory where he sat."--Milton.

CONJUNCTIONS. Rule 13. Conjunctions introduce Sentences and connect Words and Phrases.

Rem.-Conjunctions differ from Prepositions in not expressing a rela. tion of the words connected.

Obs. 1.-Conjunctions may be omitted when the connection is sufficiently clear without them. EXAMPLES—“Unnun.bered systems, [ ) suns, and worlds,

Unite to worship thee;
While thy majestic greatness fills

Space, [ ] Time, [. ] Eternity.”
OBs. 2.-The position of Sentences often determines their
connection.
EXAMPLES—"The time may come you need not run.Thomson.

“ Milton! thou shouldst be living at this hour

[For] England hath need of thee."— Wordsworth. Obs. 3.—Relative Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives derived from them. serve, in addition to their primary office, to introduce Auxiliary Sentences. EXAMPLES—"He who filches from me my good name

Robs me of that which not enriches him.
“Lo the poor Indian whose untutored mind
Sees God in clouds or hears him in the wind.”

“ Thoi hadst a voice whose sound was like the sea." OBS. 4.—The Conjunction that often introduces a sentence which is the logical object of a verb or participle going beforo in construction. EXAMPLE_" The creditor demanded that payment should be made."

(See Diagram, p. 32.]

.

-SYNTAX

Obs. 5.-Conjunctions that introduce Auxiliary Sentences, and some others, indicate the offices of the Sentences which they ntroduce.

If, Unless, &c., indicate condition.
As, When, Before, &c., indicate time.
For, Hence, Therefore, &c., indicate an infercnce or cause.
But, Yet, Nevertheless, &c., indicates restriction or opposition
Nor, Neither, &c., indicate a negation.
EXAMPLES—“ If sinners entice thee, consent thou not.”

Speak of me as I am-nothing extenuate

Nor sct down aughi in malice. Obs. 6.-The Adverb "how" is sometimes improperly used instead of the Conjunction “that.” EXAMPLE--"She tells me how with eager speed

He flew to hear my vocal reed."-Shenstone. Obs. 7.—Conjunctions sometimes introduce the remnant of a Sentence. Example—Though [ ] afflicted he is happy.

OBs. 8. --Words connected by Conjunctions have a similar construction. EXAMPLES God created the hearen and the earth."

“ Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to hope."

A great and good man has fallen.” Rem.—Heaven” and “earth” are alike Objects of " created.”

Slept” and “ lent” are Predicates of “ Time."

“Great” and “good” describe “man.” Obs. 9.—But they have not necessarily similar modifications. EXAMPLE="Every teacher has and nuust have his own particular way of imparting knowledge.”McElligott.

Rem.-" Has” and “must have" are Predicates of teacher"_but they are not of the same Mode nor Tense.

Obs. 10.—Position. The proper place for a Conjunction is before the sentence which it introduces, and between the words or phrases which it connects. EXAMPLE" AND there lay the rider, distorted and pale,

With the dew on his brow and the rust on his mail.” Obs. 11.—But, in complex sentences, the Conjunction introducing the Principal Sentence is commonly placed first, and that introducing the Auxiliary Sentence immediately following. EXAMPLE" And when its yellow lustre smiled

O’er mountains yet untrod,
Each MOTHER HELD aloft her CHILD

To bless the bow of God."

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