Sidor som bilder

But to this rule there are exceptions.
Examples—. They kneeled BEFORE they fought.

“How vain are all these glories, all our pains,

Unless good sense preserve what beauty gains."-Pope.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


CORRESPONDING CONJUNCTIONS. Obs. 12.-Many Conjunctions correspond to Adverbs, to Prepositions, and to other Conjunctions. As...

.“ As is the mother so is the daughter." So

Mary is not so cheerful as usual.” Both and. Both good and bad were gathered in one group." Either

Either you mistake, or I was misinformed." Neither....nor “ Neither Alice nor Caroline has been here to day.” Whether ..or.. “I care not whether you go or stay.” So... that .“ He called so loud that all the hollow deep.” Such .that

My engagements are such that I cannot go.If.. .....then. ." If you will take the right, then I will go to the left." Not only..but also...“ She was not only vain, but also extremely ignorant.” Though... yet Though man live a hundred years, yet is his life

as vanity.” Because... therefore...“ Therefore doth my father love me, because I lay

down my life.” Rcm.-The Antecedent corresponding word is sometimes expletive. Obs. 13.-Double Conjunctions are sometimes used. EXAMPLES—" As though he had not been anointed with oil."

And yet, fair bow, no fabling dreams,

But words of the Most High
Have told why first thy robe of beams

Was woven in the sky.” Obs. 14.—But they may not be used when one of them would fully express the connection.

EXAMPLE_" There would be no doubt but that they would remain.” The word “butis unnecessary and improper.

[ocr errors]

EXCLAMATIONS Rule 14. Exclamations have no dependent construction.

OBS.--Exclamations may be followed by Words, Phrases, or
EXAMPLES O Scotia! my dear, my native soil !

Wo! Wo! to the riders that trample thee down."
“O that I could again recall
My early joys, companions, all!"


EUPHONY Prin.--Words of Euphony are in their offices chiefly rhetorical.

Rem.— The principles of Euphony are much required in the structure of all languages. For Euphony, words are altered in form, position, and office-and they are for Euphony created or omitted.

OBS.--Euphony allows
1. The transposition of words in a Sentence.
EXAMPLE="From peak to peak the rattling crags AMONG

Leaps the live lhunder."
2. The omission of a letter or syllable.
EXAMPLE_"Hark! 'tis the breeze of twilight calling."
3. The substitution of one letter for another.


For Conlect..

4. The addition of a letter, syllable, or word.
EXAMPLE" It was his bounden duty thus to act."

5. A word to be separated into parts, and another word in gerted between them.

EXAMPLE_" How MUCH soever we may feel their force."
6. A word to be used not in its ordinary office.
ExamPLES" And there lay the steed with his nostrii all wide.".
“ The more I see of this method, the better I like it.”

Obs. 2.-Words of Euphony should be placed in their appro-
priate connection.
In the following examples, this principle is violated :

" To think of others, and not only of himself.”
Here "only” is used to render "himself” emphatic. A better position
would be .... and not of himself only."

Joyous Youth and manly Strength and stooping Age are even here." Better-Joyous Youth and manly Strength and even stooping Age are here.

6. When our hatred is violent, it sinks us even beneath those we hate.' Better--.... it sinks us beneath even tHOSE WE HATE.

" Even IN THEIR ASHES live their wonted fires.”

[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

OBS. 3.-A word repeated in the same connection, is to be regarded as a word of Euphony. EXAMPLES—Down! down! the tempest plunges on the sea."

“For life! for life! their flight they ply.”

GENERAL RULES. 1. In constructing a Sentence, such words should be chosen as will most clearly convey the sense intended-regard being had also to variety and other principles of taste.

2. In expressing Complex ideas, judgment and taste are to be exercised in the use of Phrases and Sentences, when they may equally convey the sense--regard being had 1st, to the sense—2d, to good taste, &c.

3. That Modification of words should be adopted, which is in accordance with the most reputable usage.

4. The relative Position of Words. Phrases, and Sentences, should be such as to leave no obscurity in the sense.

5. Involved Complex Sentences should not be used, when Simple or Indepeudent Sentences would better


the sense.



What is the office of a Preposition ?
The object of a Preposition may consist of what?

How are we to deiermine what word is the antecedent term of a relation ?

When may doubie Prepositions be used ?
When may Prepositions be used in Predication ?
What is the proper position of a Preposition ?
How are we to de:ermine what Preposition to use in a given Phrase?

When the Antecedent and Consequent are related by comparison, what Preposition is used ?

CONJUNCTIONS. What is the office of Conjunctions ?

Wherein does the office of a Conjunction differ from that of a Preposi. tion ?

When may the Conjunction be omitted ?
What other words are used to introduce sentences ?
What secondary •ffice do some Conjunctions perform ?
Wherein must words connected by a Conjunction agree ?
What is the proper position of a Conjunction ?
What peculiarity of position in complex sentences ?
When may double Conjunctions be used ?


What is an Exclamation ?
What relation have they to other words in a Sentence ?
Exclamations are followed by what?

What is the office of a Word of Euphony?

Principles of Euphony allow what deviations from the crdinary struclure of Words, Phrases, and Sentences ?

" For the angel of death spread his wings on the blast,

And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed."


Adjuncts of “ breathed.”

ANALYSIS Angel .... Subject, Principal


(and) Predicates Parts.

Compound Sentence

Wings.... Object of "spread.")
Of death

Adjuncts of “angel.”

. Adjunct of "wings.”
On the blast. ..Adjunct of “ spread.”
In the face of the foe
As he passed

As......introduces the sentence

2 He..... Subject,

Simple Sentence,

Passed ..Predicate.


.introduces the sentence. ... Hence..a Conjunction. RULE.—Conjunctions introduce sentences and coro

nect words and phrases." The

an Adjective, .specifies “angel” Rule.-- Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns

which they describe." Angel ....... is a name....

.Hence..a Noun. one of a class..

Hence..Common. spoken of......

Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one...

...Hence.. Singular Number, subject of the words “spread” and breathed "

..Hence.. Nominative Case.

Hence { Specifying

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Rule.—“The Subject of a sentence must be in the

Nominative Case." Of death specifies "angel ”


San Arjective

Speci*ying. Rule.-—Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns

which they describe.of ...........introduces a Phrase, showing a

relatior of “death” to “angel.” Hence..a Preposition. RULE.:-“ A Preposition shows a relation of its object to the word which its phrase qualifies." a name....

Hence..a Noun. denotes a class.

Hence.. Common. spoken of....

Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one.

Hence.. Singular-Number. Object of the relation expressed by “of

. Hence.. Objective Case. Rule.-" The object of an action or relation must be

in ihe Objective Case." Spread ........asserts an act.....

Hence..a Verb.
act passes to an object. Hence.. Transitive.
simply declares..

Hence.. Indicative Mode. denotes a past act

Hence.. Past Tense.

Third Person,
Predicate of “angel ”. ...Hence

Singular Number.
RULE.—“ A Verb must agree with its subject in Per.

son and Number." His ........ ...describes “ wings Adjective. describes by specifying.

Specifying specifies by denoting possession Hence.. Possessive. RULE.—“ Adjectives belong to Nouns and Pronouns

which they describe." Wings... is a name....

.Hence..a Noun. name of a class of things. Hence.. Common. spoken of.....

Hence.. Third Person. denotes but one..

Hence.. Singular Number Object of the action expressed by “spread

..Hence.. Objective Case. RULE.—“ The object of an action or relation must be in the Objective Case."


[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



[ocr errors]
« FöregåendeFortsätt »