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EXCLAMATION. RULE—The mark of Exclamation is used after a word, phrase or sentence, whose prominent office is to express sudden or in. tense emotion.
INTERROGATION. RULE—The mark of Interrogation is used after a word, phrase, or sentence, by which a question is asked. Example="Why is my sleep disquieted ?
Who is he that calls the dead ?
Is it thou, O king ?” Rein.-When the Interrogation or Exclamation is used, the Comma, Semicolon, Colon, or Period, is omitted,
GRAMMATICAL AND RHETORICAL SIGNS.
Long 2. The Quotation “ "
10. Caret i
13. The Section 7. The Brace
14. The Paragraph I Rising 8. Inflections Falling
Circumflex The Apostrophe (') is used to indicate the omission of a letter -and to change a Noun into a Possessive Specifying Adjective. EXAMPLES—" Hearts, from which 'twas death to sever;'
Eyes, this world can ne'er restore."
4. How lightly mounts the Muse's wing." The Quotation (" ") is used to inclose words taken from some other author or book. EXAMPLES—“Southey, among all our living poets," says Professor Wil
son, "stands aloof and alone in his glory.' A quotation quoted is indicated by single marks. EXAMPLE—[See the latter part of the example above.)
The Hyphen [-] is used between two elements of a compound word.
Rem.-It is also used at the end of a line, when, the wori s not fin.
The Bracket [ ] is used to inclose a letter or mark, given
[For] England hath need of thee.”
to him [Lord Talbot) for his chaplain.”
OBS. 2.-Modern writers often use the Dash for the same
failed us--was agreeably relieved yesterday, by the neigh
borhood of two ships," &c.—Malcolm.
The Brace (3) is used to join three lines in a triplet—and to
And every fountain pours a several rill,
And glowing violets cast their odors round.”
(-) indicates the long sound of a syllable,
as late, mēte, nõte.
The Caret (1) is used between two words, to indicate the place of words omitted, and placed above the line. EXAMPLE—"The proper study is man.”
A Diæresis (-:-) is placed over the second of two vowels, to show that they belong to different syllables. Examples—Preëmption ........ Coëval... Reëducate.
OBs. 4.-The Hyphen is sometimes placed between the vowels, for a similar purpose. EXAMPLE-Co-operate.
The Index (L) is used to point out a word or sentence, considered worthy of special notice.
The Section ($) marks the divisions of a chapter or book.
The Paragraph (T) is used when a new subject of remark is introduced.
Rem.—The sign of the Paragraph is retained in the Holy Scriptures ; but in other composition, the Paragraph is sufficiently indicated by its commencing a new line on the page.
Accent is a stress of voice placed on a particular syllable in pronouncing a word.
Emphasis is a stress of voice placed on a particular word in a sentence. This mark is indicated,
1. In manuscript, by a line drawn under the emphatic word.
2. On a printed page, by the use of Italic letters—CAPITAL letters are used to indicate words still more emphatic.
COMPOSITION. Def. Composition as the word implies is the art of placing together words, so as to communicate ideas. Composition is of two kinds,
PROSE AND VERSE. In Prose Composition, words and phrases are arranged with a primary reference to the sense.
In Verse, the sound and measure of words and syllables determine their position.
Among the various kinds of Prose Composition, may be mentioned the following:
Narrative, Descriptive, Didactic, Historical, Biographical.
VERSE. Verse consists in words arranged in measured lines, constituting a regular succession of accented and unaccented syllables. Verse is used in Poetry. The different kinds of Poetry are, Lyric,
Pastoral. Lyric Poetry is—as its name imports--such as may be set to music.
It includes the “ Ode" and the “Song."
DRAMATIC Poetry is a poem descriptive of scenes, events, or character, and is adapted to the stage.
The Tragic and It includes
Epic Poetry is a historical representation-real or fictitiousof great events.
DIDACTIC POETRY is that style adapted to the inculcation of science or duty.
An EPIGRAM is a witty poem, short, and generally abounds in ludicrous expressions.
AN EPITAPH is a poetic inscription to the memory of some departed person.
A SONNET is an ode of a peculiar structure, and generally of fourteen lines.
PASTORAL POETRY relates to rural life, and is generally a song.
VERSIFICATION. Versification is the art of making verse—i.e., the proper arrangement of a certain number of syllables in a line. There are two prominent distinctions in verse,
1. Blank Verse.
Blank Verse consists in- measured lines of ten syllaoles each, and which may or may not end with the same sound.
Rhyme consists in measured lines, of which two or more end with the same sound. A Line in poetry, is properly called
A Triplet. Four or more lines, are called
A Stanza. Verses end with may
Rhyming syllables, or
As children of the Nation;
To keep the Declaration."
two Syllables or A Foot may consist of
three Syllables. Feet of two syllables are the
Trochee ... first long, second short.
Spondee .. both long..
Rem.-Most English Poetry is written in zambic, Trochaic, or Anapæstic verse.