Sidor som bilder


NOTE A. DEF. Orthography is that branch of the Science of Language which treats of LETTERS—their forms, their offices, and their combinations in the structure of WORDS. OBs. The English Language has twenty-six letters, which

S Forms and are distinguished by their ....

Uses. The various forms of letters are exhibited in the following table :

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][subsumed]
[ocr errors]

Obs. Roman letters are in most common use in the English language.

Italic letters are used in words of special importance, and sometimes in sentences.

In the sacred Scriptures, words supplied by the translators to complete the construction of sentences according to the English idiom, are printed in Italics.

Old English letters are used for variety or ornament-in title pages, etc.

Obs.—The small or “ lower case letters are used in forming words, with the following exceptions, which provide for the use of

CAPITAL LETTERS. Obs.—A word should begin with a capital letter, 1. When it is the first word of a distinct proposition.

2. When it is a Proper Name, or a word immediately derived from a Proper Name. EXAMPLES—Boston-William-American-Vermonter. 3. When it is a name or appellation of the Supreme Being. EXAMPLES-God-Saviour_Holy Spirit-Lord-Omnipotent. 4. When it is the first word of a line in poetry. EXAMPLE—Twinkle, twinkle, little star,

How I wonder what you are;
Up above the world so high,

Like a diamond in the sky.5. When it is a principal word in a title of a book or office, and sometimes when it is a word of special importance, or used technically. EXAMPLES—“ Willard's History vi the United States.”

"Burke on the Sublirie and Beautiful."
“The Subject of a Verb should not take the place of the

6. When it commences a direct quotation.
EXAMPLES—" The footman, in his usual phrase,

Comes up with 'Madam, dinner stays.'"

“Wo to him that saith unto the wood, “Awake!" 7. When it constitutes the Pronoun " I,” or “the Exclamation 5 0." EXAMPLES—"O, I have loved in youth's fair vernal morn,

To spread Imagination's wildest wing.”



8. When it is a Common Noun, fully personified. EXAMPLES—"Sure I Fame's trumpet hear."-Cowley.

“ Here Strife and Faction rule the day." OBS.--Letters are of various sizes, and have their corresponding appropriate names. The varieties of type in most common use are the following:

1. Pica.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV WXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

2. Small Pica.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV WXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

3. Long Primer.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVW XYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

4. Bourgeois.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

5. Brevier.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefgh ijklmnopqrstuvwxyz.

6. Minion.- ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklma nopqrstuvwxyz. 7. Ágate.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwXYZ. 8. Pearl.-ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ. abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxy..

[ocr errors]


WORDS. Obs.--Words are composed of one or more letters, and, like Sentences and Phrases, consist of

Principal Parts and

Adjuncts. The Principal Parts of a word are the letters which indicate the principal sound. They are called VOWELS.

EXAMPLES in mate.

å in håt. in me.

è in met. oi in toil.

æ in aphæresis. ou in sound.

e in subpæna. The Adjuncts of a word are the letters prefixed or added to the Principal Parts, to modify their sound. They are called CONSONANTS.

EXAMPLES. min måte, me.

h in hat,

hate, t in mate, time.

s in aphæresis, sound. 1 in toil, - lame.

v in vile twelve. c in cider, cane.

p in post, happy.


Obs.-When a word has but one Principal Part it is pronounced by one impulse of the voice, and is then called

a Monosyllable. EXAMPLES-Hand-fall-me-so-strength.

OBS.-When a word has two Principal Parts it requires two articulations, and is then called

a Dissyllable. EXAMPLES—Handsome-falling-strengthen-holy.

OBS:-Generally, a word has as many syllables as it has Prin cipal Parts.

OBs.-Two letters may form one Principal part of a word when they are placed together, and combine to form one sound. EXAMPLESoi in toil-ou in sound-ai in fair.

OBS.- A letter, ordinarily used as a vowel is sometimes added to a syllable or word to modify the sound of other letters, and is then an Adjunct. Examplesme in time-y in they— in claim.

Obs.-One or more of the letters constituting a word are sometimes used as the representatives of that word. These are called



The most commou abbreviations are the following.
A. C..... Before Christ..from the Latin.. Ante Christum.
A. B. Bachelor of Arts....

..Artium Baccalaureus.
A. D..... In the year of our Lord..." ....Anno Domini.
Master of Arts ...

..Artium Magister.
A. M... In the year of the world..

.....Anno Mundi. In the forenoon.

...Ante Meridiem. B. D... Bachelor of Divinity.

.Baccalaureus Divinitatis. D. D..... Doctor of Divinity

..Doctor Divinitatis. e. g...... For example...

..Exempli gratia. i. e..... ....That is.

.Id est. LL. D. ...Doctor of Laws.

.Legum Doctor.
L. S......Place of the seal.

..Locus Sigilli.
Messrs...Gentlemen ............ French..Messieurs.
M. D.....Doctor of Medicine. .Latin..Me Doctor.
MS.. Manuscript..

“..... Scriptum Manus. N. B..... Take notice..

.Nota Bene.
\ Afternoon

.Post Meridiem.
Post master.
P. S......Postscript

.....Post Scriptum. S.T.D... Doctor of Theology..

.....Sanctæ Theologiæ Doctor.

[ocr errors]

P. M.....



[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

The English langage has its foundation in the Saxon Addi tions have, from year to year, been made to it, from the Latin, the Greek, the French, the Italian, the German, and other European languages—partly by the transfer of words from those languages to the English-but chiefly by the addition of Prefixes and Suffixes.

Of the Prefixes the most common are the following.
.on, in, at..

.aboard, amidsi. А

away. .from.....

aoduct. Abs

abstain. A . without

amorphous. An

anarchy. Ad

adjourn. Af

affix. Ag

aggregate ΑΙ

allure, At

attend. Ante .before

.antedate, Anti against

antipathy. Be..... act or make ....... .bewail. Bene ... well

... benevolence. Bi .. two..

.. biennially.

....circumnavigato Con.

... .confer. Contra against.

..contradict. De ..from...

.debar. Dis . not


eject. Ec

eccentric. Ef ...... from ....


exclude. beyond

..extraordinary En.. to make

..ennoble. For

..forsake. Foro

...forego. Hemi .... half

.hemisphere. In

inform. or not


ignoble. Il


intervene. Male

.....malevolence. Mis . wrong

..misjudge. Mono




... with





Im Ig

Inter ....

...., between


[ocr errors]



« FöregåendeFortsätt »