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CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES. Rem.-Some sentences assert the being, condition, or state, of a person or thing—or an action which does not terminate on an object. Others asseri an action which terminates on an object.

Some sentences assert but one fact; others, more. Some assert an in. dependent, or a principal proposition; others, a secondary, or qualifyivg proposition. Hence, Prin. Sentences are distinguished as

Intransitive or Transitive,
Simple or Compound,

Principal or Auxiliary. Def. 27. An Intransitive Sentence asserts being, condition, or state-or an act which does not terminate on an object. EXAMPLES-I am-William sleeps-James is weary-Ani

— - — mals run-Cora sings sweetly-God is Love.

Obs. -An Intransitive Sentence contains one or more subjects and predicates, but no object.

Def. 28. A Transitive Sentence asserts an act which terminates on an object.

EXAMPLES—Birds, built nests—Bring flowers—John and Den nis saw woodJane studies Grammar and Botany—“ The king of shadows loves a shining mark.

OBS.-A Transitive Sentence has at least one subject, one predicate, and one object.

Def. 29. A Simple Sentence asserts but one proposition.

Obs.—It asserts but one fact concerning one person or thing: Hence, it contains but one subject, and one predicate, and (if transitive) one object.

EXAMPLES-Birds fly—John is studious-Resources are developed.

Nore.-Two or more simple sentences, distinct in grammatical con. struction, may have a logical connection. Such a collection of sentences is properly called a Period.

Wheat grows in the field--and men reap it." "A friend exaggerates a man's virtues-an enemy his crimes.”

Def. 30. A Compound Sentence asserts two oi more propositions.

OBS.—It asserts two or more facts concerning one or more persons or things.

As, Henry studies and recites grammar.

Or it asserts one or more facts concerning two or more persous or things.

As, Homer and Henry study grammar.

Or it asserts one act of one person or thing which terminates on two or more objects.

As, Henry studies grammar and arithmetic.

Hence, a compound sentence contains two or more subjects, or predicates, or objects.

DEF. 30, a.—The parts of a compound sentence are called clauses. OBS.—The compound clauses

may

be (6.)

1. The subjects--As, Homer and Henry study

grammar. 2. The predicates—Henry studies and recites

grammar. 3. The objects—Henry studies grammar and

arithmetic. Rem.-Sentences which have compound predicates, often have objects applicable to only a part of them. Hence,

DEF. 30, b.A compound sentence having one or transitive, and one or more intransitive clauses, is a Mixed Sentence. (7.)

EXAMPLES—Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass

to Hope. The stars will then lift up their heads and rejoice.

more

Nore.-A compound sentence is not "a union of two or more simple sentences." is Wheat grows in the field, and men reap it.” Here are two simple sentences, independent of each other, so far as the grammati. cal construction of them is concerned. The latter sentence is simply a ided to the former-and its proximity alone determines the word for vhich the word “il" is substituted.

Nor is a compound sentence always "made up of parts of two or more simple sentences." O.xygen and Hydrogen form water. We may no say--Oxygen forms water and Hydrogen forms water; hut as thể tw nings, Oxygen and Hydrogen, must be joined chemically before they can trurin water, so the iwo words, “ Oxygen” and “ Hydrogen," must be joined i construction, before the “subject of the sentence" is complete.

A compound sentence has at least one member of one of the principal parts common to two or more members of anuther of the principal parts. (See Examples above.)

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Def. 31. A Principal Sentence asserts an independent or principal proposition: as,

(8.)

“ A mortal disease was upon her vitals."

Def. 32. An Auxiliary Sentence expresses a qualifying assertion: as,

(9.)

“ A mortal disease was upon her vitals, before Cæsar had passed the Rubicon."

NOTE.-An auxiliary sentence is an adjunct of a sentence, phrase, or word, going before in construction; or it is used as a substitute for a noun. Hence, Prin. Auxiliary sentences are distinguished as

Substantive, Adjective, and Adverbial. DEF. 32, a.-A Substantive Sentence is used as the subject or object of a verb: as, (10.)

" That good men sometimes commit faults can

not be denied.”

“Much learning shows how little mortal

know.'

Note. A sentence is sometimes used independently in con struction, although explanatory of another: as, “ It echoed his text, Take heed how ye hear.

DEF. 32, b.- An Adjective Sentence is used to qualify a no or pronoun: as,

(11.)

“He that getteth wisdom, loveth his own soul.”

DEF. 32, 6.-An Adverbial Sentence is used to modify the sig wification of a Verb, Adjective, or Adverb: as,

(12.)

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" Where wealth and freedom reign, conteatment fails.”

Def. 33. A principal sentence, with its auxiliary sentences, constitutes a Complex sentence.

6. He hears the thunder ere the tempest lowers."

[See Examples attached to Diagrams 9, 10, 11, and 12.] 1. The king of shadlows loves a shining mark.

(13.)

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Shining > Adjuncts of mark,

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= Let the construction of this sentence be written on the black-board.

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Other Examples applicable to the same Diagram. 2. The science of Geology illustrates many astonishing facts. 3 Let the Anc?ysis of this sentence be written on the black-board.

Construction.
Words.
Use.

Cluss. Def. 'The, limits " science."

Adj., 9. Science, agent of the action expressed by “illustrates.” Noun, 7. Of, - expresses a relation of “science” and“ geology.” Prep., 12. Geology, object of the relation expressed by “of.” Noun, 7. Illustrates, expresses the action performed by “science.” Verb, 10. Many, limits " facts.”

Adj., 9. Astonishing, qualifies “facts."

Adj., 9. Facts, - object of the action expressed by “illustrates." Noun, 7

3. A love for study secures our intellectual improvement. 4. The habit of intemperance produces much lasting misery. 5. A desire for improvement should possess all our hearts 6. The use of tobacco degrades many good men. 7. A house on fire presents a melancholy spectacle. 8. A man of refinement will adopt no disgusting habit.

Let each pupil make a sentence adapted to the above diagram.

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1. In the beginning God created the heaven and

the earth.

(14.)

HEAVEN

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Construction.
Words.
Use.

Class. Def. In, expresses a relation of "created” and “ beginning,” Prep., 12. The, limits “ beginning,"

Adj., 9. Beginning, object of relation expressed by "in,"

Noun, 7. God, agent of the action expressed by “created,” Noun, 7. Created, expresses the action performed by “God," Verb,' 10. The, limits “ heaven,'

Adj., 9. Heaven, - object of action expressed by “ created,"

Noun, 7. And, connects "heaven” and “ earth,”

Conj.' 13. The,

limits -
“earth,

Adj., 9. Earth, object of action expressed by “created,"

Noun, 7, 2. He educated his daughter and his son, at great expense.

3. Students require of the teacher, much instruction and some patience.

4. We, at all times, seek our honor and our happiness.

5. God, in the creation, has displayed his wisdom and his power.

6. Men gather the tares and the wheat, with equal care. 7. John loves his study and his play, with equal attachment.

* Let the pupil repeat these definitions,

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