Sidor som bilder
[ocr errors]

19.." But no mere human work or character is perfect.

20. “ The profoundest depths of man's intellect can be fath. omed.

21. “In the loftiest flights of his imagination he can be followed.

22. “None of his richest mines are inexhaustible."

23. The time must come, when all will have been said, that can be said, to exalt the character of any individual of our race, however great his talents or illustrious his virtues. 24. “Mysterious are His ways, whose power

Brings forth that unexpected hour,
When minds that never met before,

Shall meet, unite, and part no more." 25. “Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not." 26. “ That secrets are a sacred trust,

That friends should be sincere and just,

That constancy befits them-
Are observations on the case,

That savor much of common-place, 27. And all the world admits them.”

28. “ The dilatory caution of Pope enabled him to condense his sentiments, to multiply his images, and to accumulate all that study might produce, or chance supply."

29. “ Dryden often surpasses expectation-
30. Pope never falls below it."
31. "Dryden is read with frequent astonishment-
32. Pope, with perpetual delight.”
33. "The heavenly hills were oft within thy view,
34. And oft the shepherd called thee to his flock."


Principle. The science of language embraces, 1. The structure and form of words, or,

ORTHOGRAPHY.* 2. The classification and modification of words, or,

ETYMOLOGY. 3. The relation and mutual dependence of words, or,

SYNTAX 4. The arrangement and utterance of words, or,




Prin. Words are distinguished by their

Forms and Uses.

Prin. By their forms, words are distinguished as

Radical or Derivative, | Simple or Compound. DEF. 34. A word that does not derive its original from another word in the language, is a Radical Word.


* For an epitome of Orthography, see Appendix, Note A.

DEF. 35. A word formed from a Radical, by prefixing or add ing one or more letters to it, is a Derivative Word. Examples—Manly-enjoy-joyous-enact-active-conform.

DEF. 36. A word that may be used separately from another word, is a Simple Word. Examples-Man-money-board-stand-maker-ink.

DEF. 37. A word made of two or more words combined, is a Compound Word. EXAMPI ES—Money-maker-ink-stand-black-board. Prin. Particles used in forming Derivative Words, are

Prefixes and Suffixes. DEF. 38. One or more letters placed before a word, is a Prefix. EXAMPLES-Inform-conform-amend-bedew-unbind. DEF. 39. One or more letters added to a word, is a Suffix. Examples-Forming-mended-dewi-active-joyous-manly. Prin. Prefixes and Suffixes are Simple or Compound.

Examples of Simple.

extend-define-conform- | brutal-feeling-acted-
amend instruct_collect. manly-harmonize-wilful.

coextend-unconform-- | brutality-feelingly,
preinstructrccoilect. manfully-harmonizing.

Prefixes and Suffixes.
affection-commotion-confutation collective

preconcerted-unconformable-transubstantiation. Prin. The Radicals of Derivative Words are Separable or Inseparable.

Def. 40. A Separable Radical constitutes a perfect word without the aid of Prefixes or Suffixes.


DEF. 41. An Inseparable Radical is not used as a word in the language, without the aid of its prefix or suffix. EXAMPLES posc fect fute

lect compose affect refute collect

composition | affecied | refutation collection NOTE.- For Derivation of Words and a list of Prefixes and Suffixes, see Appendix, Note B.



Prin. By their uses words are distinguished as,

Nouns, Adverbs,
Pronouns, Prepositions,

Adjectives, | Conjunctions,
Verbs, Exclamations, and

Words of Euphony.


Def. 42. A Noun is a word used as the name of a being, place, or thing.

Obs. Nouns are names of -
1. material things—as, man-book-apple; or,

2. of ideas or things not material—as, mind-hope-desire -passion.

CLASSIFICATION OF NOUNS. Remark. Some nouns are appropriated to individual persons or places, or to things personified; others are general in their application, being used to designate classes or sorts. Hence, Prin. Nouns are distinguished as

Proper and Common. Def. 43. A name, appropriated to an individual person or place, or to a thing personified, is a

Proper Noun. EXAMPLES— William-Boston-Hudson- Oregon.

Def. 44. A name used to designate one or inore of a class or sort of beings or things, is a

Common Noun. EXAMPLES~Man-book-American-conscience-feeling.

Obs. 1.-A Common Noun is a name by which the individu ality of a being or thing is designated. But, in addition to this office, some nouns are the rames of qualities.

DEF. 44, a.–Such are properly called Abstract Nouns.
EXAMPLES-Goodness-excellence-rashness moderation.

Obs. 2.—Some nouns include many individuals in one term
Der. 44, b.-Such are called Collective Nouns.

Obs. 3.—Some nouns are derived from verbs, and constitute merely the names of acts.

DEF. 44, c.—Such are called Verbal Nouns.
Examples—[In the] beginning—[“ the) triumphing (of the wicked.”]

Rem.-The classification of nouns as Common and Proper, is one raher of curiosity than of practical utility in the Science of Language.

MODIFICATION OF NOUNS. Rem.-Some nouns and pronouns, by their form, by their position in a sentence, or by their obvious uses, indicate-

1. The sex-as male or female, or neither.
2. The speaker, the being addressed, or the being or thing spoken of.
3. The number of beings or things--as one or more.
4. The condition, with regard to other words in the sentence-as,

(1.) The Subject of a sentence.
72.) The Object of a sentence or phrase.

(3.) Independent in construction. Hence, Prin. Nouns are modified by Gender, Person, Number, and Case.

Def. 45. Names of males are of the

Masculine Gender.
Def. 46. Names of females are of the

Feminine Gender. EXAMPLES — Woman-lioness—cow-queen-sister-precep: tress.

Def. 47. Names of things without sex are said to be of the Ncuter Gender.

Obs. 1.–Strict propriety will allow the names of animals mly to be modified by gender.

Obs. 2.—Young animals and infants are not always distin guished hy gender: as, “ Mary's kitten is very playful—it in quite a pet with the whole family."

“ Calm as an infant as it sweetly sleeps."


« FöregåendeFortsätt »