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OBS. 3.—Things personified are often represented by pro nouns of the masculine or feminine gender. EXAMPLES—" Then Fancy her magical pinions spread wide.”

“ Time slept on flowers, and lent his glass to Hope."
" For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast,

And breathed in the face of the foe as he pass'd.”
OBS. 4.-Many nouns which denote the office or condition os
persons, and some others, are not distinguished by gender.
EXAMPLES--Parent- cousin-friend-neighbor.

Obs. 5.- Whenever words are used which include both males and females, without having a direct reference to the sex,

the word appropriated to males, is commonly employed. EXAMPLES—" The proper study of mankind is man.

“ There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart

It does not feel for man."
But to this rule there are exceptions—as, geese-ducks.

Prin, The gender of nouns is determined
1. By the termination; as,




Patroness. Administrator, Administratrix. Prince, Princess. Author, Authoress. Protector,

Protectress. Gover 'or,

Governess. Shepherd, Shepherdess. Heir, Heiress.

Songster, Songstress.

Hostess. Tiger, Tigress.



Tailor, Tailoress


2. By different words ; as,
Masc. Fem.

Masc. Fem.
Bachelor, Maid. Husband, Wife.
Beau, Belle. King, Queen.

Girl. Lad, Lass.
Brother, Sister. Lord, Lady.

Duck. Man, Woman.
Father, Mother. Master, Mistress.
Friar, Nun. Nephew, Niece.


3. By prefixing or affixing other words.



Cock-sparrow, Hen-sparrow.
Landlord, Landlady.

Gentleman, Gentlewoman. Note.-In the English language, less importance is attached to the gender of nouns than in the Latin, Greek, and other languages the relation of words in sentences depending more upon position and less upon the terminations. Hence, in parsing Nouns and Pronouns, the gender need not be mentioned, unless they are obviously masculine or feminine

Rem.-All nouns are the names of

1. The persons speaking.
2. The persons or things addressed. Or,

3. The persons or things spoken of. Hence,
Prin. Nouns and pronouns. are of the
First Person, Second Person, or Third Person.

Def. 48. The name of the person speaking is of the

First Person. EXAMPLES—"), John, saw these things." _I

6 We Athenians are in fault.

Def. 49. The name of a person or thing addressed is of the Second Person.


Father, thy hand
Hath reared these venerable columns; thou

Didst weave this verdant roof." Def. 50. The name of the person or thing spoken of is of the Third Person.

EXAMPLES--" The hero hath departed.” Honor guides his footsteps.

NUMBER. Rem.---Nuuns by their form denote individuality or plurality. Hence, Prin. Nouns are distinguished as

Singular and Plural.




Def. 51. Nouns denoting but one are of the

Singular Number.

Def. 52. Nouns denoting more than one are of the

Plural Number:

OBS.—The Number of a noun is usually determined by the form.

1. The Plural of most nouns differs from the Singular by having an additional s.


Singular.-Act, egs, book, mastiff,


chair. Plural.--Acts, eggs, books, mastiffs, pens, chairs. 2. But a noun whose Singular form ends in s, ss, sh, x, ch (soft), and some nouns in o and y, form the Plural by the addition of cs.


Singular.-Gas, lynx, church, lash, glass, hero.

Plural.-Gases, lynxes, churches, lashes, glasses, heroes. 3. Y final, after a consonant, is changed into ie (the original orthography), and s is added.


Singular.-Lady, folly, quality.
Old Form.-Ladie, follie, qualitie,

Plural.- Ladies, follies, qualities.
4. Many nouns ending in for fe, change f into ves.


Singular.--Life, wife, leaf, sheaf, half.

Plural.--Lives, wives, leaves, sheaves, halves. To this rule there are exceptions.

5. Irregular Plurals.


Singular.-Man, child, foot, ох, mouse,
Plural.-Men, children, feet,

oxen, mice. 6. In a compound word, the principal word is varied to form the Plural.


Singular.-Father-in-jaw, aid-de-camp, fellow-servant.

Plural.-Fathers-in-law, aids-de-camp, fellow-servants.

7. Some nouns have no Plurals.
8. Some nouns have no Singular.
9. Some nouns have the same form in both numbers.


Singular.–Apparatus, news, wages, sheep, vermin.

Plural.- Apparatus, news, wages, sheep, vermin. 10. Some nouns, having a Singular form, are used in a Plu.ral sense.

EXAMPLES-Horse-foot-cavalry-cannon--sail. One thousand horse and two thousand foot-five hundred cavalry-fifty cannon-twenty sail of the line-and, for supplies, five hundred head of cattle.

11. Some nouns, having no Plural form to indicate Number, receive a Plural termination to indicate different species.

Examples-- Wines-“ Most wines contain over twenty per cent. of alcohol.” Tea—" The teas of the Nankin Company are all good.”

12. Many Latin, Greek, and Hebrew nouns used in English composition, retain their original Plurals. Commonly the ter. minations um, us, and on, of the Singular, are changed into wa for the Plural ; x into ces, and is into es.

Singular.-Datum, genus, criterion, index, axis,

Plural.-Data, genera, criteria, indices, axes,
Note. For other examples of Number, see Appendix, Note C.


Exercises in Gender, Person, and Number. P Let the class give, 1st, the Gender-21, the Person--3d, the Number of each of the following names--always giving a reason for the modification, by repeating the definitions. William, Boy, Town,

Ganges, Girl, County, Data,
Andes, Aunt,

Cuba, Cousin, City, Question
IF Let sentences be made in which the following words shall be in
the Second Person.
Father, Stars,

Thou, Heralds,
Mother, Hills,


Rivers, Ye,

Earth, Woods, Men, Floods.

Let other sentences be made having the same words in the Third Person.

Let the following Singular Nouns be changed to their Plurals and placed in sentences always giving the Rule for the change of number. Boy,

Motto, Fox, Ox, Son-in-law, Father, Hero, Staff, Pea, Spoon-full, Man, Knife,

Goose, Basis, Cousin-german, Child, Hoof, Mouse, Stratum, Knight-errant. 17 Let the Gender and Number of the following nouns be changed and placed in sentences. Man,

Bachelor, Brother, Poetess,
Boys, Lioness, Sons,

Uncles, Geese, Sister,

Cousin, Cow, Maid,

T Let the class turn to page 28, and point out all the nouns, and
mention their classes, and their modifications of Gender, Person, and

CASE. Rem.-All nouns and pronouns are used1. As the Subject of a sentence. 2. As a Definitive of some other noun. 3. As the Object of an action or relation, or 4. Independent of other words in the sentence.

These different conditions of nouns suggest their modifications in regard to case; for case in grammar means condition. Hence, Prin. Nouns are distinguished as being in the

Nominative Case, Objective Case,

Possessive Case, Independent Case.
Def. 53. A Noun or Pronoun which is the
Subject of a sentence, is in the Nominative Case.

EXAMPLES— Animals run-John saws wood-Resources are developed. “The king of shadows loves a shining mark.”

Def. 54. A Noun or Pronoun varied in its orthography, so as to indicate a relation of possession, is in the

Possessive Case. OBS. 1.—The Possessive is formed by adding an apostropho and s to the Nominative.

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Nom.-Man, boy, world, George.
Pos.-Man's, boy's, world's, George's.

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