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OBS. 2.- Most plural nouns ending in s, add the apostrophe only.
Nom.-Hoires, eagles, foxes,
Pos.-Horses'. eagles'. foxes'. OBs. 3.—Many nouns ending in the singular in s, or ce, add the apostrophe only.
conscience, Pos.- Mechanics'.
conscience'. New York Mechanics' Association.
He suffered for conscience sake. Note.-A noun or pronoun in the Possessive case is used adjectively. (For illustration, see Appendix, Note E.)
Obs. The Possessive case does not always indicate “ ' possession or ownership.” Children's shoes. Here the word “ chilaren's" does not imply ownership. It simply specifies "shoes" as to size.-Small shoes. Here "small" specifies “shoes” in a
6 similar manner—“small” and “children's," performing similar offices, are similar in their etymology; "small" is an adjec
” tive— children's" is an Adjective.
Note.-Nouns and Pronouns become Adjectives whenever their principal office is to specify or describe other names: and they may have the form of the Nominative, Possessive, or Objective case.
Sleel pens.-Silver steel.- A he goat.- Our national resources.- Nero England customs.- Il’ood cugravings.-Upland cotton.--A she goal. Their enemies.--Paris fashions.
“O, my offence is rank-it smells to heaven;
It hath the primal, cldest curse upon it,
A brother's murder."
** The king of shadows loves a shining mark.”
Def. 56. A noun or pronoun not dependent on any other word in construction, is in the
2: Names used to specify or define other names, previously 'mentioned
Examples—Paul the Apostle wrote to Timothy. Here “Paul” is the subject of" wrote,” hence in the Nominative case (See Def. 53).
Apostle" designates which “ Paul" is intended; hence, in the Independent case.
3. Nouns used to introduce independent phrases. EXAMPLES—The hour having arrived, we commenced the exercises. 4. Nouns and pronouns used in predication with verbs. EXAMPLES—“God is love"-" It is l_"The wages of sin is death."
5. Nouns and pronouns used for euphony, titles of books, cards, signs, &c.
The moca herself is lost in heaven.". “Webster's Dictimary"*" Munson and Bradley." OBS.-In the English language, nouns are not varied in form to distinguish the cases (except for the Possessive). Commonly, the case of a noun is determined by its position in a sentence—the Subject (nominative) taking the first place, the Object (objective) the last.
William assists John. But this natural order of position is often reversed by the poets and public speakers.
“Now fades the glimmering landscape on the sight,
«i Thee we adore."
Exercises. Let the class turn 10 pages 25 and 28, and point out the nouns-naming the cases of each, and the reason for each modification, after the following
And chains you to the shore."
thing, is a Noun.”
names of males are in the Masculine Gender."
ject of a sentence is in the Nominative Case." Hand..is a name; hence à Noun--for “the name of a being, place, or
thing, is a Noun.”
of a sentence or phrase is in the Objective rase.” Sliore.. is a name; hence a Noun--for "the name of a being, place, or
thing, is a Noun.”
Rem.-To avoid an unpleasant repetition of the same word in a sen. ience, a class of words is introduced as substitutes for names. Hence,
Def. 57. A word used instead of a Noun, is called a
CLASSIFICATION OF PRONOUNS.
Others relate directly to the nouns for which they are used.
Prin. Pronouns have the same modifications of Gender, Person, Number, and Case, as Nouns.
NotE.-—Pronouns of the First and Second Persons are not varied to denote the sex.
Rem.-To denote these several Modifications, some Pronouns are varied in form. This variation of form is called
DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS.
Possessive. Objective. Independent. Singular I
I or met Plural
thou Plural Ye
he or him Plural They . their
it Plural They their
they Obs. 1.--Mine, thine, his, hers, ours, yours, and theirs, are used in common with other definitives--substantively, 2.
l. the representatives of nouns which it is their primary office to specify. They are then properly called Adjective Pronouns.
EXAMPLES-He is a friend of mine." “ Thine is the kingdom.” " Theirs had been the vigor of his youth."
* My, thy, his, her, our, your, their, its, mine, and thine, when used to specify or otherwise describe nouns and pronouns (and they commonly are so used), are to be classed as Adjectives. They are placed here to Lenote their origin, and to accommodate those Teachers who prefer to call them Pronouns. [For an exposition of their true etymo ogy, see Appendix, Note E.-See, also, Webster's Grammar.)
† Pronouns in the Independent Case, commonly take the form of the Nominative, as "O happy they!" "Ah luckless he!" "It is [!"
But they sometimes take the form of the Objective, as “ Him excepted.” "I found it to be him." " It was not me that you saw. " Ah ne !!!