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OBS. 2.-The Pronoun it, is often used indefinitely.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Def. 59. A Pronoun used to introduce a sentence which qualifies its antecedent, is a
Relative Pronoun. LIST.-They are, who, which, that, and what
Obs. 1.-Who is varied in Declension to indicate the Cases only. Which, that, what, are not declined. Nom. Pos.
Indep. Who Whose, * Whom,
Who or Whom. Which,
Which, Which. That,
That, That. What,
What, What. Obs. 2.-- Who is applied to man, or to beings supposed to possess intelligence.
EXAMPLES-He who studies will excel those who do not. "He whom sea-severed realms obey."
OBs. 3.- Which and what are applied to brute animals and things.
EXAMPLES—The books which I lost. The pen which I use, is good. We value most what costs us most.
Obs. 4.-- That is applied to man or things.
66 Where is the patience now, That you so oft have boasted to retain."-Lear. Obs. 5.- What, when used as a Relative, is always compound; and is equivalent to that which, or the things which.
The two elements of this word never belong to the same sen. tence; one part introduces a sentence which qualifies the antecedent part of the same word.
“Our proper bliss depends on what we blame." In this example, "What" is a compound Relative, equivalent to the two words, that which. That the Antecedent
part--is the object of "on :" "which”--the Relative part—is the object
* Whose is always a definitive, attached to nouns, and may relate to persons or things-as "Whose I am, and whom I serve."
s Whose body Nature is, and God the soul."
of“ blame." The Auxiliary sentence, we blame which," is used to qualify" that.” [See page 32, Diagram 23.)
OBS.--The compounds, whoever, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever, whatever, and whatsoever, are construed similarly to what.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Def, 60. A Pronoun that is used to ask a ques. tion, is an Interrogative Pronoun.
List.— They are, who, which, and whit.
UBS.— Who is applied to man; which and what, to man or things.
EXAMPLES--"Who will show us any good ?". “ Which do you [!!fer ?" • Which of the officers was killed ?” « What will a man give in exchange for his soul?"
OBS.-- Which and what are often used as Adjectives.
ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Def. 61. A definitive word used to supply the place of a Noun, which it defines, is an
OBs. 1.- In this example, "some" defines people (understood), and is, therefore, used adjectively ;-—it is substituted for the word "people," constituting the Subject of the sentence—hence it is used substantively. But the substantive office, being the principal office, the word is properly called a Pronoun. Its secundary office being adjective, it is properly called an Adjective Pronoun. Obs. 2.—The following words are often thus used:
Former, Neither, Such,
This. Most specifying, and all qualifying Adjectives may be thus used.
Examples" The good alone are great.” “The poor respect the rich." · Que step froin the sublime to the ridiculous."
Substantive, Abstract, Collective, Verbal.
MODIFICATION OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS.
NOUNS and ProNOUNS are modified by
Masculine, Feminine, Neuter First, Second, Third. Singular, Plural. Nominative, Possessive, Objective, Independent
"I see them on their winding way." 1....... is used for the name of a person; hence a Pronoun-for “a word
used for a noun, is a Pronoun."
Pronoun whose form determines its person and number,
ject of a sentence is in the Nominative Case." Them.. is used for the name of persons; hence a Pronoun--for “a word
used for a noun, is a Pronoun.”
a sentence or a phrase, is in the Objective Case.” 3 In like manner, let the Pronouns in the following sentences be parsed.
“ That the
unfolds And spreads us to the gaze of God and men." “ You wronged yourself,” “What we honor, you despise « Whatever is, is right.” “She raised the napkin, o'er them spread, Which hid them from her view." 6 The rich and the poor meet together, The Lord is the maker of them all." 6 Train up a child in the way he should go ; And, when he is old, he will not depart from it.” “He that oppresseth the poor to increase his riches, And he that giveth to the rich, shall surely come to want." “ Be not thou one of them that strike hands, Or of them thau are sureties for debts."
yon clear spring that....
QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.
class of words ? Why?
ADJECTIVES. Rem.-As things possess individuality, and have points of difference froin each other; so we have words which point out and describe those things, and inark their difference from other ihings. Hence,
Def. 62. A word used to qualify or otherwise describe a noun or pronoun
An Adjective. EXAMPLES-Good-amiable--the-our-earnest-fallingyoung-conscientious—correct--famous.