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OBS. 2.-The Pronoun it, is often used indefinitely.
EXAMPLES-I snows-it rains-is it you?

*

RELATIVE PRONOUNS. Def. 59. A Pronoun used to introduce a sentence which qualifies its antecedent, is a

Relative Pronoun. LIST.-They are, who, which, that, and what

Obs. 1.-Who is varied in Declension to indicate the Cases only. Which, that, what, are not declined. Nom. Pos.

Oby.

Indep. Who Whose, * Whom,

Who or Whom. Which,

Which, Which. That,

That, That. What,

What, What. Obs. 2.-- Who is applied to man, or to beings supposed to possess intelligence.

EXAMPLES-He who studies will excel those who do not. "He whom sea-severed realms obey."

OBs. 3.- Which and what are applied to brute animals and things.

EXAMPLES—The books which I lost. The pen which I use, is good. We value most what costs us most.

Obs. 4.-- That is applied to man or things.
EXAMPLES—Them that honor me, I will honor.

66 Where is the patience now, That you so oft have boasted to retain."-Lear. Obs. 5.- What, when used as a Relative, is always compound; and is equivalent to that which, or the things which.

The two elements of this word never belong to the same sen. tence; one part introduces a sentence which qualifies the antecedent part of the same word.

“Our proper bliss depends on what we blame." In this example, "What" is a compound Relative, equivalent to the two words, that which. That the Antecedent

part--is the object of "on :" "which”--the Relative part—is the object

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* Whose is always a definitive, attached to nouns, and may relate to persons or things-as "Whose I am, and whom I serve."

s Whose body Nature is, and God the soul."

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of“ blame." The Auxiliary sentence, we blame which," is used to qualify" that.” [See page 32, Diagram 23.)

OBS.--The compounds, whoever, whosoever, whichever, whichsoever, whatever, and whatsoever, are construed similarly to what.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. Def, 60. A Pronoun that is used to ask a ques. tion, is an Interrogative Pronoun.

List.— They are, who, which, and whit.

UBS.— Who is applied to man; which and what, to man or things.

EXAMPLES--"Who will show us any good ?". “ Which do you [!!fer ?" • Which of the officers was killed ?” « What will a man give in exchange for his soul?"

OBS.-- Which and what are often used as Adjectives.
EXAMPLES—Which book is yours? What evil hath he done?

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Def. 61. A definitive word used to supply the place of a Noun, which it defines, is an

Adjective Pronoun.
EXAMPLE_" Some [ ) said one thing, and some, another." [ ]

OBs. 1.- In this example, "some" defines people (understood), and is, therefore, used adjectively ;-—it is substituted for the word "people," constituting the Subject of the sentence—hence it is used substantively. But the substantive office, being the principal office, the word is properly called a Pronoun. Its secundary office being adjective, it is properly called an Adjective Pronoun. Obs. 2.—The following words are often thus used:

Former, Neither, Such,
Both,

That,
Each,
Latter, One,

These,
Either, Least,

Other, Those,
Few,

Several,

This. Most specifying, and all qualifying Adjectives may be thus used.

Examples" The good alone are great.” “The poor respect the rich." · Que step froin the sublime to the ridiculous."

66

All,

Last,

None,

Less,

RECAPITULATION.

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Radical,

Separable,
Inseparable

Prefix
Derivative, Root,

Sufix. Simple,

Basis,
Compound, ,

Adjunct.
Noun,
Pronoun,
Adjective,
Verb,
Adverb,
Preposition,
Conjunction,
Exclamation.

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Substantive, Abstract, Collective, Verbal.

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MODIFICATION OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS.

Gender,

Person,

NOUNS and ProNOUNS are modified by

Masculine, Feminine, Neuter First, Second, Third. Singular, Plural. Nominative, Possessive, Objective, Independent

Number,

Case.

Exercises.

a

for "

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"I see them on their winding way." 1....... is used for the name of a person; hence a Pronoun-for “a word

used for a noun, is a Pronoun."
Its form determines its person and number; hence Personal

Pronoun whose form determines its person and number,
is a Personal Pronoun."
Denotes the speaker; hence First Person-for "the name of the
person speaking is of the First Person."
Denotes but one; hence Singular Number-for “nouns denoting
but one are in the Singular Number.”
Subject of the sentence; hence Nominative Case--for “the sub-

ject of a sentence is in the Nominative Case." Them.. is used for the name of persons; hence a Pronoun--for “a word

used for a noun, is a Pronoun.”
Its form determines its person and number; hence Personal-for
"a Pronoun whose form determines its person and number, is
a Personal Pronoun.”
Denotes persons spoken of; hence Third Person-for " the name
of a person or thing spoken of, is of the Third Person."
Denotes more than one; hence Plural Number - for “nouns
denoting more than one are of the Plural Number."
Object of the sentence; hence Objective Case--for “the object of

a sentence or a phrase, is in the Objective Case.” 3 In like manner, let the Pronouns in the following sentences be parsed.

That the

page

unfolds And spreads us to the gaze of God and men." “ You wronged yourself,” “What we honor, you despise « Whatever is, is right.” “She raised the napkin, o'er them spread, Which hid them from her view." 6 The rich and the poor meet together, The Lord is the maker of them all." 6 Train up a child in the way he should go ; And, when he is old, he will not depart from it.” “He that oppresseth the poor to increase his riches, And he that giveth to the rich, shall surely come to want." “ Be not thou one of them that strike hands, Or of them thau are sureties for debts."

And

yon clear spring that....
Wells softly forth, and visits the strong roots
Of half the mighty forest, tells no tale
Of all the good it does." [See Diagram 5.]

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...

QUESTIONS FOR REVIEW.
In how many ways are words distinguished ?
By their forms, how are they distinguished ?
What is a Radical word?
What is a Derivative word?
What is a simple word ?
What is a Compound word ?
What is a Prefix ? What is a Suffix?'
What is a Separable Radical ?-Inseparable ?
By their uses, how are words distinguished i
What is a Noun ?
What is a Proper Noun ?-A Common Noun ?
What are the distinctions of Common Nouns ?
What is an Abstract Noun ? - Collective ? -- Verbal ?
How are Nouns and Pronouns modified ?
What does the term Masculine Gender denote?
What Feminine Gender ? What Neuter Gender ?
How are the genders of Nouns determined ?
Why are Nouns and Pronouns varied in Person?
What Nouns and Pronouns are of the First Person?
What of the Second Person ?-What of the Third Person ?
Why a distinction of Number?
What Nouns and Pronouns are of the Singular Number?
What are of the Plural Number ?
How is the Plural of Nouns commonly formed ?
Why are Nouns and Pronouns distinguished by Case ?
When are Nouns and Pronouns in the Nominative Case ?
When in the Possessive ?-lhe Objective ? --the Independent ?
Nouns and Pronouns in the Possessive Case are placed with what

class of words ? Why?
What is a Pronoun? Why are they used ?
What are the classes ? Name them.
What is a Personal Pronoun? Name them.
What is a Relative Pronoun? Name them.
What is an Interrogative Pronoun? Name them.
What is an Adjective Pronoun?
What are the modifications of Pronouns ?

ADJECTIVES. Rem.-As things possess individuality, and have points of difference froin each other; so we have words which point out and describe those things, and inark their difference from other ihings. Hence,

Def. 62. A word used to qualify or otherwise describe a noun or pronoun

is

An Adjective. EXAMPLES-Good-amiable--the-our-earnest-fallingyoung-conscientious—correct--famous.

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