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A good boy
An amiable young lady.
Our national resources.
An earnest culture.

Falling leaves.
Conscientious Christian.
Correct expression.
Famous orators.

Rem.-Adjectives are used

1. To express a quality--as, good boy-red rose-sweet apple.
2. To specify or limit-as, the book thy pen-three boys.
3. To express, incidentally, a condition, state, or act—as, love

ing-wheeling-injured. Hence,
Prin. Adjectives are distinguished as

Qualifying Adjectives,
Specifying Adjectives, and

Verbal Adjectives. Def. 63. A word used to describe a noun, by expressing a quality, is

A Qualifying Adjective.
EXAMPLES—Good - sweet-cold-honorable-amiable vir
An honorable man.

Some good fruit.
An amiable disposition. Three sweet oranges.
A virtuous woman.

Much cold water.
Def. 64. A word used to define or limit the

ap plication of its noun, is

A Specifying Adjective.
EXAMPLES—A-an-the-this-that-some -three-my.
A man of letters.

That mountain in the distance
An educated man. Some good fruit.
The question at issue.

Three sweet oranges.
This road.

My enemy. Obs.—Adjectives derived from proper nouns are called Page per Adjectives


Rem.-Adjectives may specify~

1. By simply pointing out things—by limiting or designating.
2. By denoting relation of ownership, adaptation or origin.

3. By denoting number, definite or indefinite. Hence,
Prin. Specifying Adjectives are distinguished
as Pure, Numeral, and Possessive.

Def. 65. A word used only to point out or desig-
pate things is A Pure Adjective.
Thou art the man.

The next class.
That question is settled. The same lesson.
Those books are received. Other cares intrude.
6 Such shames are common.”

Any man may learn wisdom. Def. 66. A word used to describe things by indicating a relation of ownership, is

A Possessive Adjective.

My father--my neighbor. Children's shoes.
Our enemies.

John's horse.
Their losses are severe.

Teacher's absence.
Note.-When a noun or pronoun assumes the possessive form, it loses
its substantive character and becomes a definitive. The following illus-
tration will make this truih quite evident: “ John purchased an Arabiar
horse, and William an Indian pony. But John's horse having been in-
jured, John exchanged it for William's pony."

Now, it is allowed that the word “ Arabian," in the above example, is an Adjective-it specifies “horse” as to its origin—a particular kind of horse. As truly is the word “ John's” an Adjective; for, in this connec: tion, it specifies " horse” as to its present condition-a particular horse. It should be remembered that the words " John” and “John's” differ quite as much, even in form, as do the words “ Arabia” and “ Arabian.” But John is a Noun-and so is Arabia; because they are used only as names.

" Arabian" is an Adjective--and so is “ John's;" because, in the sentence above, they are each used to describe : horse. Each word has a substantive origin-each, with its change of form, has changed its office.

Nore 2.—Nouns sometimes become Adjectives, without any change of form.

E.XAMPLES-A gold pen-an iron stove-cedar posts.

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NUMERAL ADJECTIVES. Def. 67. A word used to denote Number, is a

Numeral Adjective. EXAMPLES-One-ten-first-second-twice-fourfold-few many-no more.

OBS. 1.-Numeral Adjectives may be
Cardinal.... One-Two-Three-Four.

Multiplicative Once-Twice-Thrice.
Indefinite . Few-Many-Some (denoting number).

Obs. 2.-A and An, when they denote number, are to be classed as Numeral Adjectives.


“Not a drum was heard, nor a funeral note."
“ Not an instance is on record.”

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VERBAL ADJECTIVES. Def. 68. A word used to describe a Noun or Pronoun, by expressing, incidentally, a condition, state, or act, is a Verbal Alljcctive.

Obs.—This class of Adjectives consists of Participles—used primarily to describe Nouns and Pronouns.

Scaling yonder peak, I saw an eagle wheeling near its brow." In this example the sentence is, “I saw eagle;" and "scaling yonder peak,” is a phrase, used to describe “ I.Wheeling near its brow," describes a eagle.” Scaling and wheeling are Participles used to describe a Noun and a Pronoun-hence they are in their office, Adjectives. (See Def. 62.] They describe by expressing (not in the character of Predicates, but), “incidentally, a condition, state, or act," of " I” and “ eagle"-hence they are Verbal Adjectives. *


* Teachers who are unwilling to allow that a Participle “conveying the idea of time,” is an Adjective, will do well here to explain the subject of Participles to their classes, according to their peculiar views. I have chosen the above arrangement as being more simple; and, in my view, more fully answering to the common definition of an Adjective. For further remarks on this subject, see the article “Participles,” in its proper place.


A running brook.

I saw a boy running to school,
A standing ponc

Another standing by the way.
Disputed territory

It is a truth undisputed.
Undoubted fact.

It is a fact undoubted. Rem.- Participles used as Adjectives, commonly retain their verbal tharacter, and like their verbs, may have objects after them. Hence,

Prin. Verbal Adjectives are distinguished as Transitive and Intransitive.

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MODIFICATION OF ADJECTIVES. Rem.-Most Qualifying Adjectives express, by variations in form, different degrees of quality. Hence,

Prin. Some Adjectives are varied in form, to denote

Comparison. There may be four degrees of comparison. 1. Diminutive,


saltish, 2. Positive,


salt, 3. Comparative,


salter, 4. Superlative,


saltest. Def. 69. The Diminutive Degree denotes an amount of the quality less than the Positive.

It is commonly formed by adding ish, to the form of the Positive.

Def. 70. The Positive Degree expresses quality in its simplest form, without a comparison.

Def. 71. The Comparative Degree expresses an increase of the Positive.

It is commonly formed by adding er, to the form of the Positive.

Def. 72. The Superlative Degree expresses the highest increase of the quality of the Adjective.

It is commonly formed by adding est, to the form of the Positive

Obs. 1.--By the use of other words the degrees of Comparison may be rendered indefinitely numerous.

EXAMPLES-Cautious, somewhat cautious, very cautious, unusually cautious, remarkably cautious, exceedingly cautious, too litlle cautious, uncartious, quite uncautious.

Obs. 2.—Comparison descending, is expressed by p.efixing the words less and least to the Adjective.

EXAMPLES—Wise, less wise, least wise ; ambitious, less ambitious, leasi ambitious.

IRREGULAR COMPARISON. Prin. Some Adjectives are irregular in com parison.




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Comparative. Superlative.






S farthest.



Obs. 1.—Most Adjectives of two or more syllables, are com-
pared by prefixing the words more and most, or less and least, to
the positive.



more careful.. ... most careful.
Careful. ...less careful ..........

....least careful. OBS. 2.—Some Adjectives may be compared by either method specified above.


Positive. Comparative. Superlative.
........ remoter ..

Remote. .... more remote....... most remote.
Obs. 3.-Some Adjectives cannot be compared—the qualities
they indicate not being susceptible of increase or diminution.

EXAMPLES.-Round-square- triangular-infinite.

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