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ADJECTIVES are distinguished as




Specifying, Numeral,




Exercises. 13 Let the pupil determine which of the following Adjectives are Qualifying, which are Specifying, and which are Verbal. Of the Qualifying Adjectives, which can be compared, and how compared-of the Špecifying Adjectives, which are Pure, which Numeral, which. Dossessive-of the Verbal, which are Transitive, which are Intransitive.

Able, False, That, Forgotten,
Bold, Good, Three, Standing,
Capable, Honest,

Tenth, Loving,
Doubtful, Infinite, Twice, Admonished,

Just, Several, Unknown. Let the pupil point out the Adjectives, Nouns, and Pronouns, in the following sentences, and name their classes and modifications. Let him be careful to give a reason for the classification and modification of each, by repeating ihe appropriate definitions and observations.

Good the highest approbation of their Teacher.
Some men do not give their children i proper education.
A trilling accident often produces great results.
An ignorant rich man is less esteemed than a wise poor man.
The richest treasure mortal times afford, is, spotless reputation.

“ These dim vaults,
These winding aisles, of human pomp or pride,
Report not. No fantastic carvings show
The boast of our vain race, to change the form
Of thy fair works. Thou art in the soft winds
That run along the summits of these trees
In music:—thou art in the cooler breath,
That, from the ivmost darkness of the place,
Comes, scarcely felt:—the barky trunks, the ground,
The fresh, moist ground, are all instinct with thee"

These. .... describes “vaults;" hence an Adjective-for"a woi I used to

qualify or otherwise describe a noun or pronoun, is an Adjec



Specifies; hence Specifying-for "an adjective used only to

specify, is a Specifying Adjective."
Dim ...... qualifies “vaults;" hence an Adjective-for "a word used to

qualify or otherwise describe a noun or pronoun, is an Adjec-
Expresses a quality; hence Qualifying-for“ a word ased us
describe a noun by expressing a quality, is a Qua.ifying

Vau.ts .... is a name; hence a Noun--for “the name of a being, place,

or thing, is a Noun.”
Name of a sort or class; hence Common-for "a name used
to designate a class or sort of beings, places, or things, is a
Common Noun."
Spoken of; hence Third Person-for “the name of a person
or thing spoken of, is of the Third Person.”
Denotes more than one; hence Plural Number-for “nouns
denoting more than cne, are of the Plural Number.”
Subject of the sentence; hence Nominative Case-for “the

subject of a sentence is in the Nominative Case." Winding..describes "aisles;" hence an Adjective-for “ a word used to

qualify or otherwise describe a noun or pronoun, is an Adjec-
Describes, by expressing a condition; hence Verbal--for “a
word used to describe a noun by expressing incidentally a

condition, state, or act, is a Verbal Adjective."
Human ...describes “pomp" or " pride;" hence an Adjective—for "a

word used to qualify or otherwise describe a noun or pronoun,
is an Adjective."
Expresses a quality; hence Qualifying—for “a word used to
describe a noun by expressing a quality, is a Qualifying

(It is profitable to repeat the Definitions, until they become familiar:
after that, they may be omitted the parts of speech and the classes and
modifications of the several words being simply named, as in the follow.
ing exercise.]

“No fantastic carvings show
The boast of our vain race, to change the form
Of thy fair works.”

Class. Person. Number. Case.
No is an Adjective Specifying,

limits "carvings." Fantastic Adjective Qualifying,

qualifies" carvings." Carvings Noun Common,

Plu. Nom. to "show." The Adjective Specifying,

limits " boast." Boast Noun Common, Third, Sing. Obj. of "show."

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F. The teacher will abridge, or extend these exercises at pleasure. Then let four sentences be made, each containing the word good, so that, in the first, it will qualify the Subject-in the second, the () hject- in the third, the Object of a Phrase attached to the Subject-in the fourth, the object of a Phrase attached to the Object.

In like manner use the words amiable-honest-industrious-wise this some-loving-loved.

What is an Adjective ?
How many classes ?—their names ?
What is a Qualifying Adjective?
What is a Spccifiring Adjective ?
How are Specifying Adjectives classified ?-their names ?
What is a pure Specifying Adjective ?
What is a Numeral Adjective?
What is a Possessive Adjective ?
What is a Verbal Adjective ?
Hor: are Adjectives modified ?
How many Degrees of Comparison ?-their names ?
What does the Diminutive Degree indicate ?
What the Positive ?—the Comparative ?—the Superlative?
How form the Diminutive ?-ihe Comparative ?-the Superlative?
Are all Adjectives compared ?-Why not?


Rem.-As all things in the universe live, move, or have a being, we necessarily have a class of words used to express the act, being, or state of those things. Hence,

Def. 73. A word used to express the act, being, state of a person or thing, is

A Verb.

CLASSIFICATION. Rem.—The act expressed by some verbs, passes over to an object. Hence, Prin. Verbs are distinguished as

Transitive, or Intransitive. Def. 74. A verb that expresses an action which terminates on an object, is

A Transitive Verb. EXAMPLES-John sarc icoodGod created heaven and earth.

Def. 75. A verb that expresses 'the being or state of its subject, or an action which does not terminate on an object, is

An Intransitive Verb.
EXAMPLES—Animals run—I sitJohn is sleepy.
OBS.—Some verbs are used transitively or intransitively.
EXAMPLES—" Cold blows the wind.”

" The wind blows the dust."
" It has suepl through the earth."
“Jane has swept the floor.”
“God moves in a mysterious way.”

"Such influences do not move me." UB5.—The verbs be, become, and other intransitive verbs, whose subjects are not represented as performing a physical act, are, by many grammarians, called

Neuter Verbs.
EXAMPLES—He is—God exists—we become wise--they die.

MODIFICATION OF VERBS. Rem.-Verbs that denote action, have two methods of representing the action,

1st-As done by its subject--as, Jone loves Lucy.

2d-As done to its subject-as, Lncy is loved by Jane. HencePrin Transitive Verbs have two voices

Active, and Passive. Def. 76. The Active Voice represents the Subject as performing an action. EXAMPLE—Columbus discovered America.

Def. 77. The Passive Voice represents the subject as being acted upon.

EXAMPLE_America was discovered by Columbus.

Obs.—The subject of a verb in the active voice, commonly becomes the object of a preposition, when the verb takes the passive form; and the object of a verb in the active voice, becomes the subject, in the passive.


Example { Charles is assisted by William.

The same fact stated. “William, e subject of the Active Verb, baromes the object of “by,' when the verb wwcomes Passive; and “Charles," the object of the Active Verb, becoines the subject of the Passive.

Note.—The Passive Voice of a verb is formed by adding the Passive Participle of that verb to the very be. EXAMPLES—Active- To love, I fear,

They worship. Passive-To be loved. I am feaisu. They are worshipud. OBS.—Most Transitive Verbs may take the Passive form.

But few Intransitive Verbs take the Passive form. EXAMPLE–We laughed at his clownish perfominance—(Active Intrans:) His clownish performance was laughed at.-(Passive.)

MODE. Rem.--In addition to their primary signication, verbs perform a secondary officemi. e., they indicate some attendant or qualifying circumstances. This is indicated by the variations of the form of the verb, or by prefixing auxiliary words.

1. A verb may simply express a fact. 2. It may express a fact as possible, probable, obligatory, &c. 3. It may express a fact conditionally. 4. It may express a command, or request. 5. It may express the name of an act, or a faci unlimited by a subject. Hunce,

Prin. Verbs have five modes of expressing their signification, Indicative,


Imperative, and

Infinitive. Def. 78. A verb used simply to indicate or assert a fact, or to ask a question, is in the

Indicative Mode.
EXAMPLES“ God created the heaven and the earth."

66 Is he not honest ?" 6 Wrence come wars ?" Def. 79. A verb indicating probability, power, will, or obligation, of its subject, is in the

Potential Mode. OBS.--Words which may be regarded as signs of the Poten

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