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tial Mode, are, may-might-can-could--must-shall-should -will-would.

EXAMPLES—I may go--you might have gone-John should study-Mary can learn-It could not be done.

Def. 80. A verb expressing a fact conditionally (hypothetically) is in the

Subjunctive Mode. OBS.If

, though, unless, and other conjunctions, are commonly used with the Subjunctive Mode. But they are not to be regarded as the signs of this Mode; for they are also used with the Indicative and the Potential. EXAMPLES—If the boat goes to-day, I shall go in it.

I would stay if I could conveniently. The condition expressed by “if the boat goes,” is assumed as a fact -hence, “goes" is in the Indicative Mode.

NOTE.— The Subjunctive Mode is limited to Auxiliary (Adverbial) Sentences.

Def. 81. A verb used to command, or entreat, is in the

Imperative Mode. OBs. As we can command only a person or thing addressed, the subject of an Imperative verb must be of the Second Per son; and, as a person addressed is supposed to be present to the speaker, the name of the subject is usually understood. Examples-Cry aloud-Spare not. But it is often expressed,

“Go ye into all the world." Def. 82. A verb used without limitation by a subject, is in the

Infinitive Mode. Obs. 1.- The preposition to, is usually placed before the Infin. itive verb.

OBS. 2.- As a verb the Infinitive has no Subject, it cannot be a Predicate. It is used

1. Substantively; as-To do good is the duty of all. 2. Adjectively; -The

way to do good. 3. Adverbially; as-I ought to do good.



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Rem.-[See Appendix, Note D.]

Def. 83. A word derived from a verb, retaining the signification of its verb, while it also performs the office of some other part of speech, is called

A Participle.
Prin. Most verbs have three Participles.
Present, walking,

Past, walked,

loved, Compound, - having walked, . having loved. Def. 84. The Present Participle represents time as present, when an act expressed by it was, is, or shall be performed.

OBS.-It is distinguished by its form. The Present Participle of the active voice always ends in ing.

Def. 85. The Past (or second) Participle represents time as past, when the act expressed by it was, is, or shall be, performed.

OBS.— The Past Participle of a Regular Verb ends in d or ed. Those of Irregular Verbs end variously. [See list.]

Def. 86. The Compound Participle consists of the Participle of a principal verb, added to the word having, or being, or to the two words having been.

EXAMPLES—Having loved-being loved-having been loved. NOTE.-Participles have no distinct etymological character. They find a place in all the “parts of speech"-being used

1. As a Noun-In the beginning—the plowing: William maintains a fair standing in society.

2. As an Adjective-A running brook—a standing tree. That tree standing on the common, is the Charter Oak.

3. As an Adverb-"'Tis passing strange."


4. As a Preposition—“I speak concerning Christ and the church.” Nothing was said touching that question.”

5. As a Conjunction-Seeing we cannot agree, the discussion may be dropt.

6. As an Exclamation-Shocking!

7. In Predication with Auxiliary Verbs—We have been singing. “The spring time of year is coming."

Prin. Participles, like the verbs from which they are derived, are

Transitive, or Intransitive. OBS.-A Participle used as a Preposition, must be Transitive.

A Participle used as a Noun, Adjective, or in Predi

cation, may be Transitive. A Participle used as a Conjunction, or Adverb, must

be Intransitive. Rem.–To render the classification more simple, I have preferred to class all Participles used chiefly to describe Nouns and Pronouns, as Adjectives—and, because they are derived from verbs and retain more or less of the properties of the verbs from which they are derived, I use the term Verbal Adjective. I have given my views on this subject more fully in Note D, Appendix.

But Teachers who are unwilling to do more than simply to call them Participles will not find it difficult to adapt their views to the plan of this work ;-the pupil being taught that

Participles, like Adjectives, belong to Nouns and Pronouns.
And, in the use of Diagrams,-
Participles occupy the same position as Adjectives.

TENSE. Rem.-Generally the form of the Verb denotes, not only the manner, but also the time, of the action or event expressed by it. Šence the distinction of Tense.

Def. 87. Tense is a modification of verbs, denoting distinctions of time.

Rem.-Time is present, past, or future;-Each variety has two distinct
modifications. Hence,
Prin. Most verbs have six Tenses.
Prior Past,


Prior Future,
Prior Present,


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Def. 88. A verb denoting past time, previous th some other past time, is in the

Prior Past Tense.
EXAMPLES-I had been to Boston once before that time.
OBS.Had is the sign of this Tense.

Def. 89. A verb, when it indicates that the speaker or writer refers to some particular past time, is in the

Past Tense.
EXAMPLES—I wrote you a letter-we walked to Troy.

Obs.—In Regular Verbs, the sign of this Tense is d or ed, added to the root of the verb. In Irregular Verbs, a distinct form is used. [See List.]

Def. 90. A verb denoting past time, but in a period reaching to the present, is in the

Prior Present, Tense.

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EXAMPLES. I have been to Boston.

John has deceived me. We may have seen him.

Mary has been prospered. OBS.—Has and have, are the signs of this Tense.

NOTE.—An act or event expressed by the Past Tense Indefinite, may be made definite by the aid of an Adjunct word, phrase, or sentence.

EXAMPLES-I have been to Boston to-day.
We may have seen him when he was in town.

Def. 91. A verb expressing an action or event as now taking place, is in the

Present Tense.


Eliza sludies.


hear the bell ? Ellen is reading Emily may write that Diagram. OBS.—This is the simplest form of the verb;-the sign do, is used to denote intensity, and in asking questions.

Def. 92. A verb denoting time past, after a certrin future time, is in the

Prior Future Tense. BXAMPLE—We shall have finished this recitation before the :1881 class will come.

OBS.Shall have and will have, are the signs of this Tense.

Def. 93. A verb denoting that an act or event will take place hereafter, is in the

Future Tense.
EXAMPLE_James will return to-morrow_I shall see him.

Obs-Shall, in the First Person, and will, in the Second and Third, are the signs of this Tense.

Rem.-Distinctions of time are not indicated with precision by the form of the Verb. This must be done by the use of Adjuncts.

In the Potential Mode, the Tenses are quite Indefinite-one form being often used for another.

The same remarks will apply to Participles, to the Infinitive-the Subjunctive—and sometimes the Ladicative.

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Prior Past,


Prior Present, Indicative,


Prior Future, ACTIVE,


Prior Past,


Prior Present,


Subjunctive {

Imperative, Present.






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