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...cleaved, clave. ..clove, cleft. ..clung ..clothed.
came cost crew,
Present. Bring Build. Burn Burst Buy. Cast Catch Chide Choose Cleave Cleave Cling Clothe. Come Cost Crow Creep Cut Dare Deal Dig Do.. Draw Dream Drive Drink Dwell Eat Fall. Feed Feel Fight Find Flee. Fling Fly Forbear Forget Forsake Freeze Get Gild Gird Give. Go... Grave... Grind.. Grow Have Hang Hear. Heave.
.durst, R.. .dealt.. .dug, R.. .did....
drew .... .dreamt, r
drove ..drank .dwelt, R. .ate, eat.
.caught chidden, chid ..chosen
..cleaved .... cloven, cleft ....clung
.clad, R come cost crowed .crept ..cut .dared .dealt .dug, R .. done .drawn .dreamt, R .driven .drank, drunk ..dwelt, R .. eaten ..fallen .fed . felt . fought found .fled .Aung flown . forborne forgotten . forsaken .frozen ·got, gotten gilt, R .girt, R .given ·gone · graven, graved .ground grown
flew ..forbore. .forgot, forgat . forsook ..froze..
.gilt, R.. ....girt, R.
.hung. .heard .. hoven, B
Rid.. Ride Ring Rise. Rive.,
..rode. ..rang, rung
. rose ...rived
.rotted .ran, run. ..sawed
riven, rived rotten, R
saw .sought. .sold
Send Set.. Shake Shape Shave Shear. Shed. Shine Show Shoe. Shoot Shrink Shred
..shook. ..shaped ..shaved ..sheared, R ...shed.. ....shone, R ...
..sent ...set .. shaken ..shapen, R ...shaven, R ...shorn, sheared ...shed
..shone, a ..shown, showed ..shod ..shot ..shrunk .. shred
Present. Shut. Sing. Sink. Sit.. Slay Sleep. Slide Sling Slink. Slit. Smite. Sow. Speak Speed. Spell.. Spend Spill. Spin Spit... Split.. Spread Spring Stand.. Steal Stick. Sting Stride. Strike String Strive Strow, strew Swear Sweat.... Sweep. Swell Swim. Swung. Take. Teach. Tear Tell.. Think. Thrive. Throw.. Thrust
.sat .slew sept ..slid sung • .slunk.. .sut, R. smote
& ed... .spelt, R..
sran.. .spit, spat. .snit.. .spread. .sprung, sprang. food stole .stick.
stung. .strode, strid. ..struck.... .. strung. . Strove strowed, strewed.
Swore .sweat, R.... .Iwept
swelled .Lwum, swam . swung.
.slung ..slunk .slit, r smitten, smit sown, R .spoken .sped .spelt . spent .spilt .spun ..spit .split .spreau sprung stood .stolen .stuck .stung .stridden .struck, stricken . strung
striven ...strown, strewn, e ...sworn ..sweat .swept .swollen, R ...Swum .swung
thought. .Inrived, throve. .threw ..thrust. ..tad.
Wax Wear Weave Weep. Wet Win.
more.. wove. wept.
wet............. ..., WON........
worked, wrought. worked, wrought
written, writ OBS. 1.--Words in the above list marked R, are sometimes used as Regular Verbs. Those written in Italics are not much used by modern writers.
Obs. 2.-A Verb often has a Preposition or other prefix placed before it; the Conjugation, however, remains the same.
..overtaken. Rem.—The class should repeat this list in concert-prefixing to each verb one of the Personal Pronouns. For the Third Person a Noun nay be used-thus:
I write ..... ..I wrote ..I have written. ..having written. You tread.
· you have trod.
..having trod. He sweeps.
..he has swept.
. having swept. John does. ..John did.... ...John has done.
...having done. Men sit.
....men sat. men have sat. .having sat. Some hear .....some heard....some are heard....
..having heard. They see....... .they saw... .they are seen.. .. being seen. To the Transitive Verbs, Objects may be attached—thus: We saw wood... we sawed wood...... we have sawn wood. Birds build nests ......birds built nests ..... .birds have built nests.
Other variations in these concert exercises may be profitable-such as placing the words now, to-day, &c., after the Present--yesterday, &c., after the Past Tense-and heretofore, recently, &c., after the Prior Present. ThusI begin to-day..... I began yesterday.....I have begun recently. The wind blows now.. the wind blew then.... the wind has blown often.
· you trod.
UNIPERSONAL VERBS. Def. 98. A Verb used only as the predicate of the Indefinite Pronoun“ it,” is called
A Unipersonal Verb.
It is evident.
Rem. -As actions are modified by circumstances, and as qualities vary in degree, so words expressing actions, and words denoting qualities, are modified by other words, denoting time, place, degree, manner, cause, foc. Hence,
Def. 99. A word used to modify the signification of a Verb, an Adjective, or another modifier, is
An Adverb: Obs. 1.--Adverbs are of great utility in rendering the language concise and spirited. They are commonly substituted for Phrases.
“Brilliantly” for...." With a brilliant appearance.”
“In a vain attempt.”
.for. " In this place."
for...." At this time.”
“ Here sleeps he now." Obs. 2.- An Adverb is often used as a representative for the sentence or phrase to which it belongs. EXAMPLES—" While there we visited the Prison.”
" While we were at Auburn we visited the Prison."
“Since that time we have been friends." Obs. 3.-An Adverb often modifies a Phrase. EXAMPLES—We went almost to Boston.
Wilkes sailed quite AROUND THE WORLD.
Engraved expressly FOR THE Ladies' GARLAND.” OBS. 4.-Adverbs may consist of Words, Phrases, and Sentences.
1. A Word–The very best men sometimes commit faults. 2. A Phrase"In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth." 3. A Sentence—" They kneeled before they fought.” Note.--Some Sentences are properly Adverbial, when they perform the office of an Adverb--although in strict construction, they may be Principas Sentences.
There comes, methinks, amid the deafʼning roar, a still, small voice. Equivalent—there comes, apparently, a still, small voice.