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CLASSIFICATION OF A DVERBS. Rem.-The classes of Adverbs are very nur erous—the following are the most important:

1. Time .. Now, then, always, t--morrow.
2. Place. Here, there, hither, böck.
3. Degree ..... More, very, exceedingly, so.
4. Manner. So, as, thus, carefully.
5. Cause ..... Hence, therefore.
6. Interrogation Why? How? Wher.core ? Whence?
7. Number .... Often, once,

twice 8. Doubt ..... Perhaps, probably, po "sibly. 9. Affirmation.. Yes, certainly, surely. 10. Negation ... No, nay, not. 11. Means . ...“ Scale the heavens) by strides of huran

wisdom." 12. Effect ....“[It shrinks) to nothing in the grasp." - Young,

“m —

MODIFICATION. Prin. Some Adverbs are modited, like Adjectives, by comparison.

EXAMPLES

Pos.
Comp.

Superl.
Soon.

Sooner.

.... Soonest.
Wisely.. More wisely... ..Most wisely.
OBS.-Some Adverbs are used only for Euphony.
EXAMPLESThere are no idlers here.

“It was now, too, mid-winter.”
E'en now, where Alpine solitudes a cend,

I sit me down, a pensive hour to send ;
And, placed on high, above the stoi n's career,

Look downward, where a hundreu realms appear.
Now ..... Modifies “sit”-denoting, me; hence, an Adverb.

Where Alpine solitudes ascend

} Modifies “ sit”—denoting place; hence, an Adverb.

* To-morrow, to-day, yesterday, &c., are pn perly called Adverbs, when the phrases for which they are substituted ford be used adverbially. As, “I go to-morruw." “When ?" "On the nor ow.”

A pensive

been spend.our} Modifies “ sit”–denoting carse ; hence, an Adverb.

Modifies “placed”-denoting place; he ice, an Adverb.

On high......
Above the storm's

career. Downward.... Where a hundred realms appear.

Modifies « placed”—denoting place ; hence, an Adverb.

. Modifies “look”-denoting place; hence, an Adverb.

| Modifies “lock”–denoting place; hence, an Adverb.

Exercises.

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B Let the following Adverbs be classified and their Modification
given :
How,
Already,

In a moment,
Not Quickly,

In flower,
There, Vilely, O'er the ruins,
Soon, Eagerly,

At pile.

“ Noiselessly around, From perch to perch the solitary bird

Passes." How is it possible not to feel a profound sense of the respon sibleness of this republic to all future ages."

In a moment he flew quickly past.”
" For there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away."
* Thy pencil glows in every flower ;

Where Sense can reach, or Fancy rove,
From hill to field, from field to grove,
Across the wave, around the sky,
There's not a spot, nor deep, nor high,
Where the Creator has nct trod,
And left the footsteps of a God.”
“ Eternal Hope! when yonder spheres sublime

Pealed their first notes to sound the march of Time,
Thy joyous youth began-but not to fade:
When all the sister planets have decayed ;
When, wrapt in fire, the realms of ether glow,
And Heaven's last thunder shakes the world below;
Thou, undismayed, shalt o'er the ruins smile,
And light thy torch at Nature's funeral pilei

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Earth keeps me here
Awhile ; yet I shall leave it, and shall rise

On fairer wings than thine, to skies more clear."
Here........Modifies " keeps”—denoting place; hence, Adverb of Plare.
Awhile... ... Modifies “ keeps"—denoting time; hence, Adverb of Time,
On wings... Modifies “rise”-denoting means; hence, Adverb of Means.

(" On fairer wings than thine," is the Modified Adverb.) Than thine.. Modifies “fairer”-denoting degree; hence, Adverb of De

gree. To skies Modifies “rise” denoting place; hence, Adverb of Place.

(“To skies more clear," is the Modified Adverb.) More........ Modifies "clear"-denoting degree; hence, Adverb of Degree.

How much better satisfied he is !" How....... Modifiés "much ;" hence, an Adverb. Much..

....... Modifies “better;" hence, an Adverb. Better ... Modifies "satisfied ;" hence, an Adverb.

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PREPOSITIONS.
Def. 100. A word used to introduce a phrase,
showing the relation of its object to the word which
the phrase qualifies, is

A Preposition.
LIST.
A.....

«Wild winds and mad waves drive the vessel a wreck." About

“ We walked about town." Above

“There is a ferry above the falls." Across.

Across the lake, through bush and brake." Aboard.

.“ They came aboard ship.” Aboard of "We succeeded in getting aboard of her.” After

“He that cometh after me." Against. “He that is not for me, is against me.” Along

“ Winds that run along the summits of their hills.” Amid.

“We stowed them amid-ships.". Amidst

" Amidst the mists, he thrusts his fists." Among

“He became a great favorite among the boys. Amongst. “ We made diligent search amongst the rubbish.” Around

“ With his martial cloak around him.” As

“ That England can spare from her service such men as

him.”Lord Brougham. Aslant

“ It struck aslant the beam." Astride

" He sat astride the beam." As for..

As for me and my house." As to

As to that, I have nothing to say."

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At .... “He was at work, at noon."
Athwart “The dolphin leaped athwart her bows."
Before

“ He stood before the people.” Behind

Behind a rick of barley.Below

" The captain was belowo decks." Beneath Beneath the mouldering ruins." Beside.

." Beside its embers, red and clear.”
Besides .Besides punishment inflicted on this account.”
Between .Between whom, perfect friendship has existed."
Betwixt

“There is no difference betwixt them." Beyond

Beyond all doubt.” But..

6 All went but me." But for " And but for these vile guns." By

" To sail by Ephesus." They stood by the cross." Concerning “ Concerning whom I have before written.” Despite of. Despite of all opposition.” Devoid of.. “ You live deroid of peace." During.. During the present administration." Ere..

“And ere another evening's close.” Except.

Except these bonds." Excepting .Excepting that bad habit, the teacher was faultlese." For .... For me your tributary stores combine." From.

· Playful children, just let loose from school.” Erom among

From among thousand celestial ardors.” From between. “He came from between the lakes."

" This lady fly I take from off the grass." In....

" In the beginning."
Instead of .. Instead of the thorn, shall come up the fir.”
In lieu of.. “She has that sum in lieu of dower.”
Into.... .Into these glassy eyes, put light.”
Like.....

“ An hour like this, may well display the emptiness of

human grandeur.' Near

" His residence is near the church." Next..

"Plural nominatives should be placed next their verbs." Nigh

“Come not nigh me.” Notwithstanding.“ Notwithstanding this, we remain friends." Of...

" Of the arts of peace.Off

.“ He fell off the bows." On...

.“ On a bed of green sea-flowers." Opposite

Our friend lives opposite the Exchange.Over..

High o'er their heads the weapons swung." Out of..

.“ Out of the cooling brine to leap.” Past

.“ We came past Avon.Per

"Twelve hundred dollars per annum." Previous to

Previous to this, his character has been good. Respecting

“ Nothing was known respecting him.” Round... .“ He went round the parish, making complaints."

From off....

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Since..

" Since Saturday, he has not been seen.” Save..

“All, save this little nook of land." Saving

“With habits commendable, saving only this-he chews

tobacco."
Through " Dian's crest floats through the azure air."
Throughout.. “Nor once, throughout that dismal night.”
Than

" Than whom none higher sat.” Till.

.“ He labored hard tiil noon." To..

“We purpose to go to Rochester to-day. Touching “ Touching these things, whereof I am accused." Towards

They returned ? towards evening."
Under... .“ Then was my horse killed under me."
Underneath “And underneath his feet, he cast the darkness.”
Unlike..

Unlike all that I had ever before seen." Until..

“ We shall not return until Saturday.” Unto

Unto him who rules the invisible armies of eternity."

.“ The whole fleet was sailing up the river." Upon

"Upon the word.Via ...

“ This stage is for Buffalo, via Batavia." With..

With cautious steps, and slow.” Within.

Peace be within these walls." Without.

" Without it, what is man ?" Worth..

“ He possessed an estate, worth five thousand pounds." Obs. 1.—The Antecedent term of relation—the word which the Phrase, introduced by a Preposition, qualifies—may be a

Noun.... The house of God.
Pronoun... Who of us shall go ? I care not which of you.
Adjective .. It is good for nothing.
Verb.... .We love to study, we delight in improvement.
Participle...Jumping from a precipice.

Adverb .....He is too wise io err. Obs. 2.—The Antecedent term of the relation expressed by a Preposition, is sometimes understood."

“O refuge Meet for fainting pilgrims ( ] on this desert way.” NOTE.—In the above and similar examples, the ellipsis of the antecedent word need not be supplied in parsing, unless the sense plainly requires it. But the phrase may be parsed as qualifying the word which its Antecedent would qualify, if expressed

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"Which flung its purple o'er his path to heaven.Here the phrase "to heaven," properly modifies leading, or a word 31 similar office, understood. But " leading," modified by this phrase, would qualify "path.” Hence the phrase, “ to heaven".

-as a representative of the whole phrase “ leading to heaven"-may be attached to' path.”

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