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OBs. 3.--Prepositions introducing Substantive and Independent Phrases, have no Antecedents. EXAMPLES- “As for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.”

“ And, on the whole, the sight was very painful.”— Todd.

"O for a lodge in some vast wilderness.”- Couper. OBS. 4.—The Consequent term of relation may be, A Word. “ He stood before the people.A Phrase. ...“ Time, spent in receiving impertinent visits.A Sentence ..“And cries of_live for ever-struck the skies.”

Obs. 5.—The Consequent term of relation-Object—is sometimes understood. EXAMPLES— And the waves are white below [ ].”

“These crowd around [ ] to ask him of his health.” Many grammarians call these Prepositions, Adverbs. This is true, with this modification—they are Prepositions, having their objects understood. But, as the Phrases of which they form parts, are always used adverbially, the Prepositions-as representatives of their Phrases, are Adverbs. Hence, when thus used, each Preposition performs a double office-Prepositional, as leader of the Phrase-Adverhial, as representative of the Phrase.

OBs. 6.—The Preposition is often understood-generally when its Phrase follows verbs of giving, selling', coming, &c. EXAMPLES—Mary gave [ ] me a rose-Mary gave a rose to me.

I sold ( ) Mr. Shepard my wheat-sold wheat to Shepard. William has gone from home to-day-he will come [ ] home to-morrow.

These crowd around. Mary gave me a rose. “ Me" and "around” are—in the same sense, and by the same ruleAuverbs, viz.: as representatives of the Adverbial Phrases to which they severally belong. As words, simply, “ me” is a Pronoun-object of to understood; “around” is a Preposition-showing a relation of " crowd" and “him," understood.

Obs. 7.-Prepositions are sometimes incorporated with their Objects: EXAMPLES—I go a-fishing. He fell a-sleep. Come a-board.

Obs. 8.—Prepositions are sometimes used in predication with Verbs. EXAMPLES—Its idle hopes are o'er. That was not thought of.

Oss. 9.-A Preposition commonly indicates the office of the Phrase which it introduces.

In, on, under, above, &c., indicate a relation of place, including the idea of rest.

William's hat is in the hall, on the stool, under the table.

From, to, into, through, out of, &c., indicate a relation of place, with the idea of motion.

We came from New York to Boston.”
Of, generally indicates a relation of possession.
“ The lay of the last minstrel—the last minstrel's lay.
As, like, than, &c., indicate a relation of comparison.
“ Thou hast been wiser all the while than me."--Southey's Letters.
During, till, since, &c., indicate a relation or time.
“We have vacation during the whole month of July."
" Since Saturday, we have not seen him.”

But, as the kind of relation expressed by a given Preposition is not uniform, no perfect classification can be made.

For other observations on Prepositions, see Part III—Prepositions.

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Exercises. " Where streams of earthly joy exhaustless rise.Of.... Shows a relation of " streams” and “joy.”.. Hence, a Preposition.

"O refuge

Meet for fainting pilgrims."
For.. Shows a relation of “ meet" and " pilgrims.".. Hence, a Preposition.

“ On the plains,
And spangled fields, and in the mazy vales,
The living throngs of earth before Him fall,
With thankful hymns, receiving from His hands

Immortal life and gladness.”
On........ Shows a relation of [existing, understood, which qualifies)

“ throngs,” and “plains and fields.” Hence,.. a Preposition. In .... Shows a relation of [existing, understood, which

qualifies] “throngs” and“ vales.” Hence,... ..a Preposition.
Of ........ Shows a relation of “throngs” and “earth”....a Preposition.
Before .... Shows a relation of " fall” and “him.” Hence, a Preposition,
With .... Shows a relation of [worshiping, or some equiva-

lent word understood, which qualifies] “throngs,”
and “hymns.” Hence, .

..a Preposition. “ The chief fault of Coleridge lies in the style, which has been justly objected to on account of its obscurity, general turgidness of diction, and a profusion of new-coined double epithets."

Southey, among all our living poets, stands aloof, and alone in his glory. For he alone of them all has adventured to illustrate, in poems of magnitude, the different characters, customs, and manners of nations."

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CONJUNCTIONS. Rem.-It shoula be remembered that Prepositions connect words by shoving a relation.

Another class of words is used simply to connect words and phrases, similar in const tion, and to introduce sentences. Hence

Def. 101. A word used to join Words or Phrases, or to introduce a Sentence, is

A Conjunction. EXAMPLES—Homer and Henry have perfect lessons, because they study diligently.

Rem.--In this example, "and" connects" Homer” and “Henry”-two words having the same construction--and " because” introduces an Auxiliary Sentence.

List.—The following are the principal words which are com-
monly used as Conjunctions.

As well as, Because,







Furthermore, Incase,

Inasmuch as,

Howsoever, Lest,



Moreover, Unless,




Rem.-A few other words are sometimes used as Conjunctions.

Obs. 1.-Conjunctions used to introduce Auxiliary Sentences, and some others, constitute also an index or type of the office of the sentence which they introduce. EXAMPLES—If he repent, forgive him.”

" As vou journey, sweetly sing." In these examples, " if,” renders its sentence conditional :-"as," indicates that its senience (“you journey”) modifies “sing,” in respect to time.

Note.- When, As, Since, and many other conjunctions used to introauce Auxiliary Sentences are called, by some Grammarians, Conjunctive Adverbs. “And the rest will I set in order when I come.” We are told that


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"whe'm,” in the above example, is an Adverb of Time, relating to the two verbs " will set,” and “ come.”

We are also told (and properly), that Adverbs of time are those which answer to the question " when ?"

But dues “ when," in the above example, "answer to the question when ?" Certainly not. Then it cannot be an Adverb of Time. But the Auxiliary Sentence," when I come,” does "answer to the question when." It tells uhen “I'will set the rest in order.” Hence the sentence, " when I come,” is an Adverb of Time; and the word “when”-used only to introduce that sentence--connecting it to "will set,” is a Conjunction. (See the preceding observation.)

Obs. 2.---The conjunction nor generally performs a secondary office--that of a negative Adverb

“ Man wants but little here below,

Nor wants that little long."
In this example, “ nor” introduces the sentence, and also
gives it a negative signification.
The conjunction “ lesehas sometimes a similar construction.

“Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty."
Obs. 3.—Double CONJUNCTIONS.—Two conjunctions are some-
times used to introduce the same sentence.
ExampleS—" It seems as if they were instructed by some secret instinct.”.

And yet, fair bow, no fabling dreams.” As though, but that, and some other words, are often used as double conjunctions.

Obs. 4.- But, when an Auxiliary Sentence precedes a Principal Sentence, the conjunctions introducing them are not to be regarded as double, although they may be in juxtaposition. [See this Obs.]

[For other observations, the student is referred to Part III. CONJUNCTIONS.]

Exercises. God created the heaven and the earth." And.. ....Connects “heaven" and "earth;" hence........a Conjunction. “ Temperance and frugality promote health and secure happiness.And.. .Connects“ temperance” and “frugality;" hence, a Conjunction. And.. .Connects “ promote” and “secure;" hence......a Conjunction.

And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill.And.. .... Introduces a sentence; hence....

...a Conjunction And.. ....Connects “ deadly” and “chill,” hence ........a Conjunction.

"And oft have I the painful lesson conned,

When disappointment mocked my wooing heart,
Still of its own delusion weakly fond,

And from forbidden pleasures loth to part,

Though shrinking oft beneath correction's deepest smart." And...... Introduces a Principal Sentence; hence ....... a Conjunction. Whel..... Introduces an Auxiliary Sentence (which modifies “conned”denoting time); hence..

..a Conjunction. And.. ....Connects “fond" and “both;? hence. .a Conjunction. Though..Connects “ both” and “ shrinking;" hence .....a Conjunction.


Def. 102. A word used to express a sudden or intense emotion, is

An Exclamation.
Oes. 1.--Exclamations may consist-

1. Of Letters—as, O! Oh! Ah! Lo !
2. Of Words---commonly used as Nouns, Adjectives,

Verbs, and Adverbs—as, Wo! Strange! Hark!

Really! Behold! Shocking! 3. Of Phrases-For shame!

4. Of Sentences—0, Ephraim! how can I give thee up! Obs. 2.-Exclamations are followed by

Words—“0, Liberty !” “ Ah, the treasure !”
Phrases—“0, for a lodge in some vast wilderness !".

Sentences" O, bear me to some solitary cell !" Rem.-The term Exclamation is preferred to Interjection, as being more appropriate to its office.

Exclaim~" to cry out.”. This we de with the use of Exclamaticns. Interject to cast between." We very seldom cast these words between others—they are generally placed before other words.

WORDS OF EUPHONY. Def. 103. A word used chiefly for the sake of sound, is

A Word of Euphony. Rem.-[For the various uses of Words of Euphony, see Part I., page 10.) OBS.-Words of Euphony may be such as are commonly used

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