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script pretended to be the autograph of the evange.jst himself, and said to be preserved in the library of Saint Mark at Venice. But this is now proved to be a mere fable : for the Venetian manuscript formerly made part of the Latin manuscript preserved at Friuli, most of which was printed by Blanchini in his Evangeliarum Quadruplex. The Venice manuscript contained the first forty pages, or five quaternions of St. Mark's Gospel ; the two last quaternions or twenty pages are preserved at Prague, where they were printed by M. Dobrowsky, under the title of Fragmentum Pragense Evangelii S. Marci vulgo autographi. 1778. 4to.?

VI. The Gospel of Saint Mark consists of sixteen chapters, which may be divided into three parts, viz. Part I. The transactions from the baptism of Christ to his entering

on the more public part of his ministry. (ch. i. 1–13.) Pant II. The discourses and actions of Jesus Christ to his going up

to Jerusalem to the fourth and last passover. (i. 14.-x.) Sect. 1. The transactions between the first and second passovers.

(i. 14-45. ii. 1-22.) Sect. 2. The transactions between the second and third passovers.

(ii. 23–28. ii.-vi.) Sect. 3. The transactions of the third passover to Christ's going

up to Jerusalem to the fourth passover. (vii.—x.) Part III. The passion, death, and resurrection of Christ. (xi-xiv.) Sect. 1. The first day of Passion-week, or Palm Sunday – Christ's

triumphal entry into Jerusalem. (xi. 1-11.) Sect. 2. The transactions on the second day, or Monday. (xi. 12–

19.) Sect. 3. The transactions on the third day, or Tuesday – g i. In the morning. (xi. 20—33. xii.) ġ ii. In the evening. (xiii.) Secr. 4. The transactions of the fourth day, or Wednesday, (xiv.

1-9.) Sect. 5. The transactions of the fifth day, or Thursday. (xiv. 10

-16.) Sect. 6. The transactions of the Passover-day, that is, from Thurs

day evening to Friday evening of the Passion-week; including the institution of the Lord's supper, Christ's agony in the garden, his being betrayed by Judas, his trial, crucifixion, and burial.

(xiv. 17–72. xv.) Sect. 7. The transactions after the resurrection of Christ. (xvi.) VII. From the striking coincidence between the Gospel of Mark

, and that of Matthew, several learned men have imagined that Mark compiled bis Gospel from him. Augustine was the first who asserted that Mark was a servile copyist (pedissequus) and epitomiser of Matthew, and his opinion has been adopted by Simon, Calinet, Owen, Harwood, and others.

In the year 1792, Koppe published a dissertation, in which he 2 There is a particular account of the Prague Fragment of Saint Mark's Gospel, by Schapflin, in the third volume of the Historia et Commentationes Acadeniæ Électoralis Theodoro-Palatine, 8vo. Manheim, 1773 ; in which a fac-simile is given. The account is abridged and the fac-simile copied in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1778, vol. xlvi. pp. 321, 322.

has proved that this hypothesis is no longer tenable, and Michaelis has acquiesced in the result of his inquiries. The following observations are chiefly abridged from both these writers.

The assertion, that Mark abridged the Gospel of Matthew, contradicts the unanimous voice of antiquity, which states that Mark wrote his Gospel under the inspection and dictation of Peter ; and, although there is a coincidence between these two evangelists, yet it does not thence necessarily follow that he abridged the Gospel of Matthew. For, in the first place, he frequently deviates from Matthew in the order of time, or in the arrangement of his facts, and likewise adds many things of which Matthew has taken no notice whatever. Now, as Matthew was an apostle, and eye-witness of the facts which he related, Mark could not have desired better authority; if, therefore, he had Saint Matthew's Gospel before him when he wrote his own, he would scarcely have adopted a different arrangement, or have inserted facts which he could not have found in his original author.

Again, although there are several parts of Saint Matthew's Gospel which an evangelist, who wrote chiefly for the use of the Romans, might not improperly omit --- such as the genealogy -- the healing of the centurion's servant at Capernaum - Christ's argument to John's disciples, to prove that he was the Messiah the sermon on the mount

some prophecies from the Old Testament -- and the narrative of the death of Judas Iscariot ;-yet, on the other hand, there are several relations in Saint Matthew's Gospel, for the omission of which it is very difficult to assign a reason, and which therefore lead to the conclusion that this Gospel was not used by Saint Mark. - See particularly the discourses and parables related in Matt. viii. 18–22. ; x 15–22. ; xi. 20–30. ; xi. 3345. ; xiii. 139.; xvü. 10--35. ; xix. 10–12. ; xx. 16.; and xxii. 1--14.

Lastly, Saint Mark's imperfect description of Christ's transactions with the apostles, after his resurrection, affords the strongest proof that he was totally unacquainted with the contents of Saint Matthew's Gospel. The latter evangelist has given us a very circumstantial description of Christ's conversation with his apostles on a mountain in Galilee: yet the former, though he had before related Christ's promise that he would go before them into Galilee, has, in the last chapter of his Gospel, no account whatever of Christ's appearance in Galilee. Now, if he had read Saint Matthew's Gospel, this important event could not have been unknown to bim, and consequently he would not have neglected to record it.

Michaelis further observes, that if Saint Mark had had Saint Matthew's Gospel before him, he would have avoided every appearance

1 The title of this tract is Marcus non Epitomotor Matthæi. It was reprinted by Pott and Ruperti in the first volume of their Sylloge Commentationum Theologi. carum, Helmstadt, 1800. 8vo.

2 Koppe has given thirteen instances. See Pott's Sylloge, pp. 55–57. 3 Koppe has given twenty-three instances of these additions. Ibid. pp. 59–64.

4 Koppe has specified several other omissions in the Gospel of Saint Mark, which we have not room to enumerate. See Pott's Sylloge, pp. 49--53.




of contradiction to the accounts given by an apostle and an eyewitness. His account of the call of Levi, under the very same circumstance as Saint Matthew mentions his own call, is at least a varia

a tion from Saint Matthew's description ; and this very variation would have been avoided, if Saint Mark had bad access to Saint Matthew's Gospel. The same may be observed of Mark x. 46., where only one blind man is mentioned, whereas Saint Matthew, in the parallel passage, mentions two.

In Saint Mark's account of Saint Peter's denial of Christ, the very same woman, who addressed Saint Peter the first time, addressed him likewise the second time, whereas, according to Saint Matthew, he was addressed by a different person : for Saint Mark (xiv. 69.) uses the expression malditxn, the maid, which, without a violation of grammar, can be construed only of the same maid who had been mentioned immediately before, whereas Saint Matthew (xxvi. 71.) has anan, another maid. Now, in whatever manner harmonists may reconcile these examples, there will always remain a difference between the two accounts, which would have been avoided, if Saint Mark had copied from Saint Matthew. But what shall we say of instances, in which there is no mode of reconciliation ? If we compare Mark iv. 35. and i. 35. with Matt. viii. 28–34., we shall find not only a difference in the arrangement of the facts, but such a determination of time, as renders a reconciliation impracticable. For, according to Saint Matthew, on the day after the sermon on the mount, Christ entered into a ship, and crossed the lake of Gennesareth, where he underwent a violent tempest : but, according to Saint Mark, this event took place on the day after the sermon in parables ; and, on the day which followed that on which the sermon on the mount was delivered, Christ went, not to the seaside, but to a desert place, whence he passed through the towns and villages of Galilee. Another instance, in which we shall find it equally impracticable to reconcile the two evangelists, is Mark xi. 28. compared with Matt. xxi. 23. In both places the Jewish priests propose this question to Christ, εν ποια εξουσια ταυτα ποιεις ; alluding to his expulsion of the buyers and sellers from the temple. But, according to what Saint Mark had previously related in the same chapter, this question was proposed on the third day of Christ's entry into Jerusalem : according to Saint Matthew, it was proposed on the second. If Saint Mark had copied from Saint Matthew, this difference in their accounts would hardly have taken place.

i The whole difficulty, in reconciling this apparent discrepancy between the two evangelists, “has arisen from the vain expectation that they must always agree with each other in the most minute and trivial particulars; as if the credibility of our religion rested on such agreement, or any reasonable scheme of inspiration required this exact correspondency. The solution, which Michaelis afterwards offered in his Anmerkungen, affords all the satisfaction which a candid mind can desire. After stating that Matthew had said 'another maid,' Mark 'the maid," and Luke,' another man' (érepos), he observes, the whole contradiction vanishes at once, if we only attend to John, the quiet spectator of all which passed. For he writes (xviii. 25.) They said unto him, Wast thou not also one of his disciples? Whence it appears that there were several who spake on this occasion, and that all which is said by Matthew, Mark, and Luke, may very easily be true. There might probably be more than the three who are named; but the maid, who had in a former instance recognised Peter, appears to have made the deepest im pression on his mind; and hence, in dictating this Gospel to Mark, he might havo said the maid.” Bishop Middleton's Doctrine of the Greek Article, p. 285.

Since, then, it is evident that Saint Mark did not copy from the Gospel of Saint Matthew, the question recurs, how are we to reconcile the striking coincidences between them, which confessedly exist both in style, words, and things ? Koppe, and after him Michaelis, endeavoured to account for the examples of verbal harmony in the three first Gospels, by the supposition that in those examples the evangelists retained the words which had been used in more antient Gospels, such as those mentioned by Saint Luke in his preface. But there does not appear to be any necessity for resorting to such an hypothesis : for, in the first place, it contradicts the accounts given from the early Christian writers above cited; and, secondly, it may. be accounted for from other causes. Saint Peter was, equally with Saint Matthew, an eye-witness of our Lord's miracles, and had also heard his discourses, and on some occasions was admitted to be a spectator of transactions to which all the other disciples were not admitted. Both were Hebrews, though they wrote in Hellenistic Greek. Saint Peter would therefore naturally recite in his preaching the same events and discourses which Matthew recorded in his Gospel; and the same circumstance might be mentioned in the same manner by men, who sought not after “excellency of speech," but whose minds retained the remembrance of facts or conversations which strongly impressed them, even without taking into consideration the idea of supernatural guidance.3

VIII. Simplicity and conciseness are the characteristics of Saint Mark's Gospel, which, considering the copiousness and majesty of its subject, -- the variety of great actions it relates, and the surprising circumstances that attended them, together with the numerous and important doctrines and precepts which it contains, - is the shortest and clearest, the most marvellous, and at the same time the most satisfactory history in the whole world.

1 Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 220. Koppe (ut supra, pp. 57–59.) has given several additional examples of seeming contradictions between the two evangelists, prov. ing that Mark could not have copied from Matthew. On the subject above discussed, the reader will find much important information in Jones's Vindication of the former part of Saint Matthew's Gospel from Mr. Whiston's Charge of Dislocations, pp. 47–86., printed at the end of his third volume on the Canon; and also in the Latin thesis of Bartus van Willes, entitled Specimen Hermeneuticum de iis, quæ ab uno Marco sunt narrata, aut copiosius et explicatius, ab eo, quam a cæteris Evangelistes exposita. 8vo.' Trajecti ad Rhenum, 1811. Pott's Sylloge Comment. vol. i. pp. 65–69. Michaelis, vol. iii. p. 214, 215.

. 3 Pritii, Introd. ad Lectionem Nov. Test. p. 179. Bishop Tomline's Elements of Christ. Theol. vol. i. p. 319.



1. Author. - II. Genuineness and authenticity of Saint Luke's

Gospel, particularly of the first two chapters and of chapter viü. 27-39.-III. Date, and where written.-IV. For whom written.-V. Occasion and scope of this Gospel.-VI. Synopsis

of its contents VII. Observations on this Gospel. I. CONCERNING this evangelist, we have but little certain information : from what is recorded in the Scriptures, as well as from the circumstances related by the early Christian writers, the following particulars have been obtained.

According to Eusebius, Saint Luke was a native of Antioch, by profession a physician, and for the most part a companion of the apostle Paul. The report, first announced by Nicephorus Callisti, a writer of the fourteenth century, that he was a painter, is now justly exploded, as being destitute of foundation, and countenanced by no antient writers. From his attending Saint Paul in his travels, and also from the testimony of some of the early fathers, Basnage, Fabricius, and Dr. Lardner have been led to conclude, that this evangelist was a Jew, and Origen, Epiphanius, and others have supposed that he was one of the seventy disciples; but this is contradicted by Luke's own declaration that he was not an eye-witness of our Saviour's actions. Michaelis is of opinion that he was a Gentile, on the authority of Saint Paul's expressions in Col. iv. 10, 11. 14. The most probable conjecture is that of Bolten, adopted by Kuiniel, viz. that Saint Luke was descended from Gentile parents, and in his youth had embraced Judaism, from which he was converted to Christianity. The Hebraic-Greek style of writing observable in his writings, and especially the accurate knowledge of the Jewish religion, rites, ceremonies, and usages, every where discernible both in his Gospel and in the Acts of the Apostles, sufficiently evince that their author was a Jew; while his intimate knowledge of the Greek language, displayed in the preface to his Gospel, which is composed in elegant Greek, and his Greek name Aouxos, evidently show that he was descended from Gentile parents. This conjecture is further supported by a passage in the Acts, and by another in the Epistle to the Colossians. In the former (Acts xxi. 27.) it is related that the Asiatic Jews stirred up the people, because Paul had introduced Gentiles into the temple, and in the following verse it is added, that they had before seen with him in the city, Trophimus an Ephesian, whom they supposed that Paul had brought into the temple. No mention is here made of Luke, though he was with the apostle. Compare Acts xxi. 15. 17., where Luke speaks of himself among the companions of Paul. Hence we infer that he was reckoned among the Jews, one of whom he might be accounted, if he had

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