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had been commenced by Eliphaz, who accuses Job of impiety

in justifying himself. (xv.) Sect. 2. Job's reply, who complains of the increasing unkindness

of his friends, protests his innocency, and looks to death as his

last resource. (xvi. xvii.) Sect. 3. Bildad, going over his former line of argument, with in

creased asperity applies it to Job, whose aggravated sufferings,

he urges, are justly inflicted upon him. (xviii.) Sect. 4. Job's appeal to the sympathy of his friends, and from

them to God; professing his faith in a future resurrection, he cautions his friends to cease from their invectives, lest God

should chastise them. (xix.) Sect. 5. Job's appeal is retorted upon himself by Zophar (xx.);

to whom the patriarch replies by discussing at large the conduct of divine Providence, in order to evince the fallacy of Zophar's

argument of the short-lived triumph of the wicked. (xxi.) Part IV. The third debate or controversy (xxii.xxi.); in which, Sect. I. Eliphaz resumes the charge, respecting Job's vindication

and appeal as displeasing to God; contends that certain and utter ruin is the uniform lot of the wicked, as was evinced in the destruction of the old world by the deluge; and concludes with

renewed exhortation to repentance and prayer. (xxii.) Sect. 2. In reply, Job ardently desires to plead his cause before

God, whose omnipresence he delineates in the sublimest language, urging that his sufferings were designed as trials of his faith and integrity ; and he shows in various instances that the

wicked frequently escape punishment in this life. (xxii. xxiv.) Sect. 3. The rejoinder of Bildad, who repeats his former propo

sition, that, since no man is without sin in the sight of God,

consequently Job cannot be justified in his sight. (xxv.) Sect. 4. The answer of Job, who, having reproved the harsh con

duct of Bildad, re-vindicates his own conduct with great warmth and animation, and takes a retrospect of his former character in the relative situations of life, as a husband, as a master, and as a magistrate ; and concludes by repeating his ardent wish for an immediate trial with his calumniator before the tribunal

of God. (xxvi.-xxxi.) Part V. Contains the summing up of the whole argument by Elihu ;

who, having condemned the conduct of all the disputants, whose. reasonings were not calculated to produce conviction (xxxii.), proceeds to contest several of Job's positions, and to show that God frequently afflicts the children of men for the best of purposes, and that in every instance our duty is submission. He concludes with a grand description of the omnipotence of the Creator. (xxxiii.

xxxvii.) Part VI. The termination of the controversy, and the restoration of

Job to his former prosperity. (xxxviii.-xlii.) ; containing,
Sect. 1. The appearance of Jehovah to pronounce judgment;

who addresses Job, out of a whirlwind, in a most sublime and
magnificent speech, the substance of which is nearly a counter-
nart to that of Elihn.

In it are illustrated the omnipotenge of


God, and man's utter ignorance of his ways, and works of cre

ation and providence. (xxxvii.- xli.) Sect. 2. The submission of Job, which is accepted, his restoration

to his former prosperity, and the increase of his substance to

double. (xlii. 1-10.) Sect. 3. A more particular account of Job's restoration and prog

perity. (xlii. 11-17.)" X. Independently of the important instruction and benefit which may be derived from a devout perusal of the book of Job, this divine poem is of no small value, as transmitting to us a faithful delineation of the patriarchal doctrines of religion ; that confirms and illustrates the notices of the patriarchal religion contained in the book of Genesis, an outline of which has been given in a former volume. On this account, we trust, the reader will not be reluctantly detained if we take a brief retrospect of the patriarchal creed, - more espe

— cially as some very learned men have denied that it contained any reference either to fallen angelic spirits, or to a future resurrection of the body from the grave, and consequently to a future state of existence.

The two grand articles of patriarchal faith, from the earliest days, according to St. Paul (Heb. xi. 6.), were, 1. That there is a God; and, 2. That he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him. These articles are particularly contained in Job's declaration,

I know that my Redeemer liveth,

And that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth. But there are several other important points of doctrine either directly stated, or which may be legitimately inferred from different parts of this book : they may be reduced to the following nine articles.

1. The creation of the world by one supreme, omnipresent, and eternal Being, of boundless wisdom, irresistible power, indescribable glory, inflexible justice, and infinite goodness. This first great principle of what is usually called natural religion, is laid down throughout the whole book as an incontestable truth ; but it is particularly illustrated in the speech of Jehovah himself, in Job xxxviii.-xli.

2. The government of the world by the perpetual and superintending providence of God. This article of the patriarchal creed is particularly noticed in Job i. 9. 21. ; i. 10.; v. 8—27. ; ix. 4-13.; and in almost every other chapter of the book : in every instance, this doc- , trine is proposed, not as a matter of nice speculation, but as laying mankind under the most powerful obligations to fear and serve, to submit to and trust in their Creator, Lord, and Ruler.

3. That the providential government of the Almighty is carried on by the ministration of a heavenly hierarchy, (i. 6, 7. ; iii. 18, 19. ; v. 1.;

1 Dr. Hales is of opinion that the last six verses of this chapter, 11–17. (which particularise the increase of Job's family, the names of his daughters, who, accord. ing to primitive usage, were made co-heiresses with their brothers, together with the number of years during which he survived his trial) form an appendix ; which was probably added in later times from tradition, either by Moses, who resided so long in his neighbourhood, or by Samuel, or by the person (whoever he was) that introduced the book into the sacred canon. Analysis of Chronology, vol. ii. book i. p. 101.

. See Vol. I. Chap. V. Sect. I. $ 1. pp. 383 384.


xxxii. 22, 23.), which is composed of various ranks and orders, possessing different names, dignities, and offices.

4. An apostacy or defection in some rank or order of these powers (iv. 18.; xv. 15.); of which Satan seems to have been one, and perhaps chief. (i. 6—12. ; ii. 2—7.)

5. The good and evil powers or principles, equally formed by the Creator, and hence equally denominated “Sons of God;" both of them employed by him in the administration of his Providence; and both amenable to him at stated courts, held for the purpose of receiving an account of their respective missions.? (v. 6, 7. ; ii. 1.)

6. That Zabianism, or the idolatrous worship of the stars was a judicial offence, cognisable by the pelilim or judges; who were arbitra. tors, consisting of the heads of tribes or families, appointed by common consent to try offences against the community, and to award summary justice.3 Such was the case of the Transjordanite tribes, who were suspected of apostacy, and were threatened with ey 'rpation by the heads of the ten tribes on the western side of (Josh. xxii. 16–22.4

7. Original sin, or that corruption of the nature of every man, that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam.“It is certain,” as Bishop Burnet has well remarked, “ that in Scripture this general corruption of our nature is often mentioned :"6 and it is not to be supposed that this article of doctrine, however repugnant to the pride of man, should be omitted in the book of Job. Accordingly, we find it expressly asserted in chap. xiv. 4. ; xv. 14–16. and xxxv. 4.

8. The offering of sacrifices to placate the divine anger, and render the Almighty propitious (i. 5. xlii. 8.), and the mediation and intercession of a righteous person. (xlii. 8, 9.) In his intercession for his friends, Job is generally regarded as a type of Him “ who ever liveth to make intercession” for transgressors. If any evidence were wanting to prove sacrifices of divine institution, the declaration in xlii. 8. alone would be sufficient.7

9. That there will be a day of future resurrection (xiv. 7–11. with verses 12—15. of the same chapter), judgment (xix. 25–29.), and retribution to all mankind. (xxvii. 8. xxxi. 13, 14.)

The passage, in which Job expresses his firm faith in a Redeemer (xix. 25—29.), has been greatly contested among critics; some of

1 As obedim, servants; malachim, angels ; melizim, intercessors ; memitim, destinies or destroyers ; alep, the miliad or thousand; kedosim, SANCTI, the heavenly SAINTS or hosts generally. Good's Introd. Diss. to his Version of Job, p. lxv. See ch. iv. 18. xxxiii. 22, 23. v. i. xv. 15. of his Translation, compared with p.

lxxiv. of his Dissertation, and his notes on the passages cited.

2 Ibid. p. Ixv.

3 Job xxxi. 26–28. Dr. Hales, to whose researches we are indebted for the sixth article of the patriarchal creed, translates the 28th verse thus :

Even this would be a judicial crime,

For I should have lied unto God ABOVE 4 Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. book i. pp. 105, 106. 5 Article ix, of the Confession of the Anglican Church.

6 Burnet on Art. ix. p. 139. Having cited several passages at length, he thus concludes : “ These, with many other places of Seripture to the same purpose, when they are joined to the universal erperience of all mankind concerning the corruption of our whole race, lead us to settle this point, that in fact it has overrun our whole kind, the contagion is spread over all."

7 Archbp. Magee has collected all the evidence on this important subject with great ability. Discourses on the Atonement, vol. i. part i. pp. 25-46.


whom refer it simply to his deliverance from his temporal distresses, maintaining that it has no allusion whatever to a future state ; while others understand it in the contrary sense, and consider it a noble confession of faith in the Redeemer. The latter opinion has been ably advocated by Pfeiffer, the elder Schultens, Michaelis, Velthusen, Dr. Good, and the Rev. Drs. Hales and J. P. Smith, and is now generally received. The following is Dr. Hales' version of this sublime passage of Job.

I know that my REDEEMER (is) living,
And that at the last [day]
He will arise (in judgment) upon dust (mankind] :
And after my skin be mangled thus,
Yet ever from my flesh shall I see God:
Whom I shall see for me (on my side),
And mine eyes shall behold him not estranged;
[Though] my reins be (nou] consumed within me.

But ye should say, “Why persecute we him (further]." y as Since the strength of the argument is found in me,


ye for yourselves, from the face of the sword;
For [divino] wrath (punisheth] iniquities (with] the sword;

Thai ye may know that there is a judgment. Nor was the morality of Job less excellent than his theology. He thus expresses his undeviating obedience to the laws of God, and his delight iberein, xxiii. 11. My foot hath held His steps,

His way have I kept and not declined :
12. Neither hare I gone back from the commandment of His lips.

I have esteemed the words of His mouth,

More than my necessary food. From this and other passages, Dr. Hales with great probability thinks it evident, that there was some collection of certain precepts, or rules of religion and morality, in use among the patriarchs; - such were the precepts of the Noachidæ or sons of Noah : and there is great reason to believe, that the substance at least of the decalogue, given at Sinai, was of primitive institution. Compare Gen. ix. 1-6. How well the venerable patriarch observed the duties of morality, will be manifest to every one who will take the trouble of perusing chap. xxix. 11-17. and xxxi. 6—22.

There is a remarkable reference in the book of Job, to the former destruction of the world by water, and to its final dissolution by fire; which was prophesied by Enoch before the deluge, whence it must have been known to Noah; and no doubt, transmitted by him to his family ; and so might be communicated to Job and his friends. It occurs in the last speech of Eliphaz, the most intelligent of the three. xxii. 15. Dost (not) thou keep the old ray,

Which wicked men have trodden?

1 Dr. Hales's Analysis, vol. ii. pp. 83–86. For the very elaborate notes with which he has supported and vindicated his translation, we must refer the reader to his work. Besides the translations of Dr. Good, already referred to, there are some excellent observations on the doctrines of the patriarchal age, in Dr. Taylor's Scheme of Scripture Divinity, chap. xxiv. (vol. i. pp. 98-104. of Bp. Watson's Collection of Tracts). See also Pfeiffer's Dubia Vexata Scripturæ, Centuria III. No. 39. Op. tom. i. pp. 269–272. See also Dr. Smith's Scripture Testimony te the Messiah, vol. i. pp. 199-211.

16. Who were cut off, before their time,

The flood overthrew their foundation : 17. Who said unto God, Depart from us :'

And, . What can the ALMIGHTY do for us? 18. Yet He filleth their houses with good,

Though the counsel of the wicked was far from Him, 19. The righteous saw, and were glad,

And the innocent (Noah) derided them : 20. 'Is not their substance cut down.

And the fire shall consune the remnant of them." As if Noah had said, though this judgment by water, however universal, may not so thoroughly purge the earth, as that iniquity shall not spring up again, and wicked men abound : yet know that a final judgment by fire will utterly consume the remnant of such sinners as shall then be found alive, along with the earth itself.!



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I. General title of this Book. - II. Structure of the Psalms. — III.

Their Canonical Authority. - IV. Authors to whom they are ascribed, - 1. Moses. 2. David. 3. Asaph. --4. The sons of

Korah. 5. Heman and Ethan. — 6. Solomon. – 7. Anonymous Psalms. - Chronological arrangement of the Psalms by Calmet. - V. Collection of the Psalms into a volume. — VI. The inscriptions or titles prefixed to the different Psalms. - VII. Probable meaning of the word Selah. – VIII. Scope of the book of Psalms. - IX. Rules for better understanding them. - X. A table

of the Psalms classed according to their several subjects. 1. THIS book is entitled in the Hebrew Dobro 30 (sepher TEHILIM), that is, the Book of Hymns or Praises ; because the praises of God constitute their chief subject matter; and as they were set, not only to be sung with the voice, but also to be accompanied with musical instruments, the Septuagint version designates therm ΒΙΒΛΟΣ ΨΑΛΜΩΝ the Bool of Psalms, by which name they are cited in Luke xx. 42.; and this appellation is retained in our Bibles. In the Alexandrian manuscript of the Septuagint, this book is entitled YAATHPION, the Psalter, from the psaltery, one of the musical instruments in use when the psalms were sung: but in the Vatican manuscript it is simply called 'YAAMOI, the Psalms. The Syriac version denominates it the Book of Psalms of David, King and Prophet ; and the Arabic version, the Book of Psalms of David the Prophet, King of the sons of Israel.

II. The book of Psalms presents every possible variety of Hebrew poetry. They may all, indeed, be termed poems of the lyric kind, ihat is, adapted to music, but with great variety in the style of composition. Thus some are simply odes.

“ An ode is a dignified sort of song, narrative of the facts, either of public history, or of private life, in

1 Dr. Hales's Analysis of Clironology, vol. ii. book i. pp. 111, 112.


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