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the house of Israel, and as ye go, preach, saying, the king. dom of God is at hand.”—Matt. x. 5–7.

Now, we do not perceive, that the apostles, after the penticost, acted upon the letter or the spirit of the instructions given unto them, and the seventy, in this first instance. These instructions were, indeed, incompatible with the general nature of their future mission. An admission of a distinction in these two commissions, the one given after our Lord began his personal ministry, and the other after his resurrection, to go into operation so soon as the apostles were endued with power from on high, may perhaps be found to have some bearing upon the long controverted subject of the power of the keys. If the first commission was superceded by the second, as it most certainly was-if the apostles did not feel themselves bound before the day of penticost, as they certainly did not, to go forth among the gentiles, as they were first directed to go through the land of Judea, then, why may we not suppose that other circumstances in this intermediate or previous state of things, might also have been peculiar and limited ? When I sent you forth, said Jesus, without purse or scrip, &c., lacked ye any thing? And they said, nothing, Lord. In their subsequent ministry among the nation, they had no such competence, but lacked almost all things, being in hungerings often, and nakedness, and peril. Under what commission was Peter to use the keys, or the binding and loosing power? If the high supremacy which has been predicated upon the grant of power to Peter, had actually gone into operation after the penticost, would it not have interfered with some of those powers in heaven or in earth, which were given to "the Lord of all ?" And is it not reasonable to suppose, that the record of all those operations would have been legible in the acts of the apostles, and other parts of the apostolic writings, in which his name so often occurs ? For ourselves, we strongly incline to think, that the ministerial peculiarities which appear in the gospels previous to the crucifixion, were almost all, if we may so speak, merged in this last and general commission; and that the matter was so understood by the apostles, who, from thenceforth, acted, spoke, and wrote on all occasions with an eye to the supremacy of their adored and adorable Lord and master.

There is another question of much importance to be con: sidered. How does this commission effect other preachers

or teachers, who have had no express command or revelation from the Lord Jesus Christ. St. Paul seems to speak to this case, "I certify to you, brethren,” says he, that the gospel which was preached of me, is not after men; for I neither received it of men, neither was I taught it, but by revelation of Jesus Christ." “But though we or an angel from heaven preach any other gospel unto you, than that we have preached unto you, let him be accursed." Here it appears, that Paul received by revelation the same gospel which the twelve had been verbally commanded to teach. From all this, the necessity of a written gospel is manifest.

There are three points which might be separately considered in the text. 1. The supremacy of the Lord Jesus Christ. 2. The extent of this mission. 3. The matter of instruction. Now, should we take either of these three positions separately, or all of them collectively, could a ministerial supremacy be extracted from them, or the parts of the text from which they are deduced? Let us try the words. 1. "All power is given unto me in Heaven and in earth.” 2. "Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations.” 3. “Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.” No one surely will attempt to draw human supremacy from the remaining part of the passage, “baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” All power in heaven and in earth, constitutes Jesus Christ the head of the church. Would any degree of power

short of this have been sufficient for this high office ? Head of a church, which was to exist in all nations, and finally to embrace them all. Would not such a church have to encounter all kinds of enemies and difficulties in the world? Is not ubiquity or universal presence necessary to superintend such a church? What a difference between the Jewish church in the little territory of Judea, and a christian church extending over the surface of the globe! What a difference between a church composed of twelve tribes, and one composed of all nations, kindreds, languages, people, and tongues ! Does not this latter church require omnipotent power to defend and protect it? All kinds of power in heaven and in earth. On earth there are three kinds of power: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. All these belong to the Lord Jesus Christ. How many kinds of power there may be in heaven, we know not; but we do know, that there are meritorious, and forgiving, and interceding, and sanctifying power there. He has all-redeeming and saving power. And all judg. ment is committed unto him, that all men may honor the son, even as they honor the father. Go teach all nations, that God is their father, that Jesus Christ is their saviour, and that the Holy Ghost is their sanctifier. Teach them all things whatsoever I have commanded you, and nothing else. Keep back nothing that is profitable for them ; but teach them not for doctrines, the commandments of men. The preachers of the gospel ought to be exceedingly cautious how they take upon themselves the appearance of supremacy over the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood. In that day, when he who has all power in heaven and in earth, shall appear on his great white throne, it will be an awful thing, if any of his servants shall be found to have aspired to any of his attributes.

We shall take occasion to transcribe a certain portion of scripture, which seems to us to speak of the supremacy or headship of the Lord Jesus Christ over the church, and we shall do this the more carefully from an apprehension, that this point has of late been overlooked. Whether from accident or otherwise, we know not, but it is so, that we do not hear the kingly office of him whose right it is, enough exalted. Has the unaccountable tenacity and zeal with which the legislative power of travelling preachers has been maintained, any influence in this case? Is there a degree of irritation and soreness in some minds upon this point, and in others a delicacy and fear of giving pain? If, from these, or any other causes, we cease to be hearty in maintaining and defending the universal power of him who hath ascended-up far above all heavens, the fine gold has become dim, and the wine is mixed with water. In the 1st chapter of the Hebrews, St. Paul is giving all power in heaven and in earth to him whose right it is. God "hath in these last days,” says he, "spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. Being made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance obtained a more excellent name than they; for unto which of the angels said he at any time, thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee ? And again, when he brought in the first begotten into the world, he saith, "and let all the angels worship him"-"but unto which of the angels, said he, at any time, sit on my right hand until I make thy enemies thy footstool ? Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation." We

e are aware that this whole passage is usually applied in the abstract to the divinity of our Lord, and that the angels are considered as celestial beings, not including the human angels of the churches; but are not the angels of the churches included as a species in the genus? If he said not at any time to any of the celestial angels who dwell in his presence, to any of those pure and sinless spirits, who are endued with such vast intellects and energies. Sit thou on my right hand-occupy the mediatorial throne be head over all things to the church-be priest forever after the order of Melchizedec, how much less did he say 80 to any mortal man, whose breath is in his nostrils, who passeth away as a shadow, and continueth not. Are not all the human angels of the churches, including apostles, and prophets, and evangelists, and pastors, and teachers, ministering spirits, are they not sent forth to minister for them who shall be heirs of salvation ? So says the scripture—for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ, till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ. The very idea of immortal spirits, or mortal men, being angels, (messengers as the word means) of there being apostles (that is sent) sent forth—of their being ministers (servants) to minister, (to serve) precludes all pretention in them to supremacy over the church.

That the Apostle had in his mind a conception of the mediatorial supremacy, appears from the next chapter, and the manner in which he illustrates the quotation he makes from the 8th Psalm ; "But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor; for it became him, for whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.” This is the conclusion of all the arguments throughout the Epistle. Moses, says he, in the third chapter, was faithful in all his house as a servant, but Christ as a Son over his own house, whose house we are.

But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sin, forever sat down at the right hand of God; from henceforth expecting, till his enemies be made his footstool.

But if all the legislative, executive, and judicial power in the church upon earth, is in the Lord Jesus Christ: if there be no ministerial sovereignty over the church, how can there be any discipline in it? Whether St. Paul intended it or not, he has given a satisfactory answer to these enquiries in the 12th chapter of the first Corinthians. The "helps" and the "governments” he makes it appear are

a part of the body, the church, and not the head ; servants not masters. For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body being many, are one body; so also, Christ, that is Christ's body. For the body is not one member, but many; and if the ear shall say, because I am not the eye, I am not of the body, is it, therefore, not of the body? And if travelling preachers shall say, we are not of the body, are they therefore not of the body, but of the head? The eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need of thee; nor again, the hand to the feet; I have no need of you; but when preachers, or any body else, claim exclusive powers or prerogatives in the church, do they not say in effect to all others, we have no need of you. We have the right or the power to legislate without the representatives of the church; and we will do so. In former times when the judicial powers used to be all in the travelling preachers, they said, they had no need of the aid of the church to try and expel members. Now, when men do these things, in this kind of independent manner, they do them as the head, and not as the body. They exercise a sovereign and not a ministerial and social power-and there is a schism in the body; for the members have not the same care one for another; if one member suffer, all the members do not suffer with it; and if one member be honored, all the members cannot be honored with it. If the laity suffer by the partial or arbitrary legislation of the preachers, and the preachers reap the fruit of their own laws, how can they sympathize with the laity? Or how can the laity be honored legisla. tively, when they have no representatives. There is a schism in the body, when the mutual rights, and the mutual syrn• pathies of the preachers and the people are suspended, or destroyed. God hath tempered the body together, having given more abundant honor to that part which lacked, that there should be no schism in the body; but that the mem

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