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ARBITRATION.

In many other States more extensive and disastrous strikes existed during last year, than in Missouri. Most notable among them were the strikes of coal miners in Pennsylvania, Ohio and Illinois, those of the iron workers of Pennsylvania and Ohio, those of the lumbermen in Minnesota and Michigan, and those of the employes of cotton mills and cigar manufacturers in New York and other eastern States.

In many instances a failure to accomplish the object desired was the result, either of the financial inability of the strikers to maintain the strike, or the impossibility of the employers to accede to the demand of the strikers on account of the great depression in trade ex isting at the time. In some instances the strikes were settled by arbitration, which mode of settlement has shown by its success, to be the best, cheapest and most satisfactory means of settlement of labor disagreements. Every contest between employer and employe is based on the question of right or wrong, and this question can be more easily and satisfactorily settled by disinterested parties, who are certainly better qualified to discover what is right than the parties involved in the contest.

A settlement of any such differences before a strike is resorted to, will be easier accomplished, because the ill-feeling between employer and employe, naturally existing between them at a time that either of them claims to have been wronged, will not have reached such a point as it would if aggravated by an actual strike, and consequently a more reasonable agreement could be reached.

The establishment of Boards of Arbitration so constituted as to command the confidence of the wage-worker will show to them that society will not leave the settlement of the difference between them and their employers to the force, influence and power of capital, and at the same time assures the employer that society will not permit the employes to compel by force of physical power, and superiority of numbers, aquiescence to their demands.

It will assure both parties that their demands will be carefully considered, and if reasonable, peaceably adjusted without the expensive experiment of a strike. In this way many a strike would be prevented, as the careful and conservative workman will not be induced to enter a costly, and as to success likely doubtful, strike, when he sees a way provided by which he can accomplish all he desires, or is entitled to, in a peaceable way at little cost, and without loss of time to him and his fellow workman.

It cannot be expected that Boards of Arbritration would prevent all strikes, but it can reasonable be hoped that they would make strikes less frequent or of shorter duration.

If the full loss occasioned by strikes, both to the employer, employe and the public at large could be ascertained or even approxiimated, and the results generally known, strikes would seldom be resorted to, were any other method of settlement presented.

It is estimated that the coal miners' strike of 1881 in the Hocking Valley, Ohio, occasioned a loss of upwards of $3,500,000.00.

Many States have adopted laws establishing Boards of Arbitration. Below is a copy of the law adopted by the State of Ohio, February 10, 1885.

AN ACT

To authorize the creation and to provide for the operation of tribunals of voluntary arbitration to adjust industrial disputes between employers and employed.

SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, That the court of common pleas of each county, or a judge thereof in vacation, shall have the power, and upon the presentation of the petition, or of the agreement hereinafter named, it shall be the duty of said court, or a judge thereof in vacation, to issue in the form hereinafter named, a license or authority for the establishment within and for each county of tribunals for voluntary arbitration and settlement of trade disputes between employers and employed in the manufacturing, mechanical, or mining industries.

SEC. 2. The said petition or agreement shall be substantially in the form hereinafter given, and the petition shall be signed by at least forty persons employed as workmen and by four or more separate firms, individuals, or corporations within the county, or by at least four employers, each of whom shall employ at least ten workmen, or by the representative of a firm, corporation, or individual employing not less. than forty men in their trade or industry; provided that at the time the petition is presented, the judge before 'whom said petition is pre

sented, may, upon motion, require testimony to be taken as to the representative character of said petitioners, and if it appears that the said petitioners do not represent the will of.a majority, or at least onehalf of each party to the dispute, the license for the establishment of the said tribunal may be denied, or may make such other order in this behalf, as to him shall seem fair to both sides.

SEC. 3. If the said petition shall be signed by the requisite number of both employers and workmen, and be in proper form and contain the names of the persons to compose the tribunal, being an equal number of employers and workmen, the judge shall forthwith cause to be issued a license substantially in the form hereinafter given, author-izing the existence of such tribunal and fixing the time and place of the first meeting thereof, and an entry of the license so granted shall be made upon the journal of the court of common pleas of the county in which the petition originated.

SEC. 4. Said tribunal shall continue in existence for one year from the date of the license creating it, and may take jurisdiction of any dispute between employers and workmen in any mechanical, manufacturing, or mining industry or business, who shall have petitioned for the tribunal, or have been represented in the petition therefor, or who may submit their disputes in writing to such tribunal for decision. Vacancies occurring in the membership of the tribunal shall be filled by the judge or court that licensed said tribunal, from three names presented by the members of the tribunal remaining of that class in which the vacancies occur. The removal of any member to an adjoin. ing county, shall not cause a vacancy in either the tribunal or the post. of umpire. Disputes occurring in one county may be referred to a tribunal already existing in an adjoining county. The place of umpire in any of said tribunals and vacancies occurring in such place, shall only be filled by the mutual choice of the whole of the reprentatives, of both employers and workmen constituting the tribunal, immediately upon the organization of the same. The umpire shall be called upon. to act after disagreement is manifested in the tribunal by failure during three meetings held and full discussion had. His award shall be final and conclusive upon such matters only as are submitted to him in writing and signed by the whole of the members of the tribunal,. or by parties submitting the same.

SEC. 5. The said tribunal shall consist of not less than two employers or their representatives, and two workmen. The exact number which shall in each case constitute the tribunal, shall be inserted in the petition or agreement, and they shall be named in the license issued. The said tribunal, when convened, shall be organized by the

selection of one of their number as chairman and one as secretary, who shall be chosen by a majority of the members, or if such majority cannot be had after two votes, then by secret ballot, or by lot, as they prefer.

SEC. 6. The members of the tribunal shall receive no compensation for their services from the city or county, but the expenses of the tribunal, other than fuel, light, and the use of the room and furniture, may be paid by voluntary subscription, which the tribunal is author. ized to receive and expend for such purposes. The sessions of said tribunal shall be held at the county seat of the county where the petition for the same was presented, and a room in the court house for the use of said tribunal, shall be provided by the county commission

ers.

SEC. 7. When no umpire is acting, the chairman of the tribunal shall have power to administer oaths to all witnesses who may be produced, and a majority of said tribunal may provide for the examination and investigation of books, documents, and accounts pertaining to the matters in hearing before the tribunal, and belonging to either party to the dispute; provided, that the tribunal may unanimously direct that instead of producing books, papers, and accounts before the tribunal, an accountant agreed upon by the entire tribunal, may be appointed to examine such books, papers and accounts, and such accountant shall be sworn to well and truly examine such books, documents and accounts, as may be presented to him, and to report the results of such examination in writing to said tribunal. Before such examination the information desired and required by the tribunal shall be plainly stated in writing, and presented to said accountant, which statement shall be signed by the members of said tribunal, or by a majority of each class thereof. Attorneys at law or other agents of either party to the dispute, shall not be permitted to appear or take part in any of the proceedings of the tribunal, or before the umpire.

SEC. 8. When the umpire is acting he shall preside, and he shall have all the powers of the chairman of the tribunal; and his determination upon all questions of evidence, or other questions, in conducting the inquiries then pending, shall be final. Committees of the tribunal consisting of an equal number of each class may be constituted to examine into any question in dispute between employers and workmen which may have been referred to said committee by the tribunal, and such committee may hear and settle the same finally, when it can be done, by a unanimous vote, otherwise the same shall be reported to the full tribunal, and be there heard, as if the question had not been referred. The said tribunal, in connection with the umpire,

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