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their attention is less likely to grow weary, or to wander, when assisted by frequent pauses ; by alternate petitions, responses, and ejaculations.. as in the established liturgy.

But it is time we attend him in the conduct of his household, and the care of his flock. On the former head it may suffice to observe, that it was the house of a truly devout and Christian pastor, who summoned all under his roof to morning and evening prayer; and the same sedate and holy fervor that was so edifying in the church, never failed to ani.. mate those less public addresses to Heaven. On Sunday evenings, one hour was devoted to reading the holy Scriptures in his family, with some practical comment; and the instructive lesson began and ended with prayer,

In visiting the sick, a duty to which he was scrupulously attentive, he sometimes availed himself of the liberty the canons give, and made apposite alterations in the prayers of the church, or adopted a prayer from a private manual. But in general he adhered strictly to the established forms; selecting, and commonly by memory, from the appointed office, and from other parts of the liturgy, what he judged most suitable to the occasion. Pecuniary assistance, if necessary, was at the same time afforded with a liberal hand; and, as circumstances de manded, reproof also, or consolation, or instruction, or encouragement, was wisely administered, at a season when the mind is usually most susceptible of good impressions. In some instances, if other means of access did not occur, or did not succeed, he privately wrote to persons living in known habits of vice; and even those who were too perverse or too hardened to be reformed by their spiritual guide, still, however, such was his known probity, such his suavity of manners, and genuine piety, universally loved and revered him

Besides distributing copies of the holy Scriptures, and books of piety, which now and then were doubly endeared to the receiver by some af. fectionate inscription, he also took no small care that children especially, (whom he generally kept at school) should be taught, and should use morning and evening prayer ; and likewise that they should use, by heart, that admirable compendium of Christian morality, the third chapter of the Epistle to the Colossians. . From parochial labours to literary pursuits, the transition is easy and natural. He engaged in the controversy of the Confessional, which made then some stir in the world. In September, 1763, at the earnest request of his friend and patron, Mr. Drake, he went abroad with his eldest son, Mr. William Drake, a gentleman commoner of Brazen. nose College, and Henry Maxwell, Esq. a gentleman commoner of Christ-Church. When they were met to set forth, he stipulated with bis companions, that he should read the service of the Church of Enga land to them every Sunday; and it is but justice to add, as he remarked, that they both very readily consented. · He landed at Dover, Oct. 12, 1769, after an absence of one year and sixteen days. On his arrival at Malpas, he was welcomed with rejoicings which it is equally impossible to describe or forget. The whole parish crowded to see him; and every one that saw him, blessed him. Upon his return, he applied himself with new ardour to his pastoral duties and theological studies.

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Of Of these his studies, one of his productions was the " Discourses on the Four Gospels.” The various letters which he received, in consequence of this publication, though highly honourable to the author and the work, it would be tedious to mention ; but he received a testimony to the merits of his book, on which he set a higher value than on the commendation of any individual. This was the degree of Doctor in Divinity, by diploma, unanimously conferred upon him in full convocation, by the university of Oxford, February 23, 1779.

In the summer of 1778, Dr. Porteus, then bishop of Chester, held his primary visitation in the cathedral of his see; and Dr. Townson, by his lordship's desire, preached on the occasion a sermon which he was requested by his diocesan to publish. Two years after this, the archdeaconry of Richmond became vacant; and the same worthy bishop offered it to Dr. Townson; or, to speak more exactly, he pressed him to accept it with so much civil earnestness, when he was under his lordship's own roof, that he could not refuse it. His sight, owing to intense study in the earlier part of life, was rather feeble, and would not always bear the fatigue of long application. On these occasions, poetry was one of his amusements.

In the year 1783, Lord North offered him the chair of Divinity Professor of the University of Oxford ; an honour, however, which he declined to accept. His lordship's letter, and the answer, we shall give in our next, which reflect so much honour on both, and which we are persuaded will be peculiarly gratifying to our readers. The Striciures which were printed in the Appendix of Dr. Horsley's Letters to Dr. Priestley, were written by Dr Townson. In his last illness, and in the last part of that illness, he revised a work on which he had bestowed a great portion of his time. It was faithfully printed from his corrected manuscript after his decease. In the year 1790 an infirmity came upon Dr. Townson, which rendered travelling painful and hazardous.

The inalady, in itself not very severe nor uncommon, was affecting in its circumstances. It was the first symptoms of approaching disso, lution; and it cut him off from visiting those distant friends whom he loved and respected. His feelings were sensibly touched on the occasion ; but he quickly became content, and alınost pleased with the dispensation. “I do not,” he said with emphasis, “ regret this at all; there is a time when it is right a man should stay at home.” And the sincerity of his declaration was evinced by his spirits and cheerfulness, which flowed, if possible, with a fuller tide than ever. He still composed sermons occasionally for the instruction of his parish. Nor was he inattentive, amidst his sacred studies, to the publications of the day, and to works of philology and genius. Some symptoms of dropsy came upon him with the cold weather, in December. However, he still attended church, and on the first day of the new year, preached with good elocution, iwenty-three minutes, on Prov.xxvii. 1.“ Boast not thyself of 10-morrow; for thou knowest not what a day may bring forth.” This was the first text on which he preached in Malpas church ; and it happened to be the last. His complaint, attended with an asthma, increased after this, in a very rapid and alarining degree; and, for the first time uring his residence at Malpas, medical assistance was called in. Upon the first attack of the disorder his spirits sunk considerably ;

but but divine goodness, aiding his endeavours, soon restored his cheerful. ness in all its vigour. Medicine also afforded some relief to he disorder ; but this very reliet was not without its inconvenience ; and he wrote the following epigram on the " dilemma between taking and refusing the medicines prescribed for shortness of breath ;"

* Pharmaca, quæ stomachum vexant et viscera, sumo,

“ Nempe ea succurrunt debili anhelitui,
"" Ni sumo, intereo male spirans ; art ubi sumo,

Non queo ferre cibos, intercoque fame."

To be concluded in our next.

SACRED CRITICISM. No. XIV.

A CRITIQUE ON OUR LORD'S PROPHECIES,

PART II.
MATT. XXIII, XXIV, XXV.

[Continued from p. 201 of last Vol.]

TO THE EDITORS OF THE ORTHODOX CHURCHMAN'S MAGAZINE.

GENTLEMEN,

TN the former communication on this mysterious subject, I considered

the import of the first branch of the disciples' enquiry ; (which, in every hypothesis, is agreed to relate to the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem by the Romans, A. D. 70) and also stated and examined the amazing circumstantial chain of prophecies, predictive thereof, from Moses to Christ. I now proceed to the second branch of their enquiry :

Και τι, το σημειον της σης ΠΑΡΟΥΣΙΑΣ;

" And what the sign of thy Presence?” The meaning of the terins of this question has been much disputed by the respective advocates of the several hypotheses before mentioned. The literal and primary signification of the word onuslov, is a “ sign,"token," prognostic," or "portent ;" thus, the sun and moon were originally appointed “ for signs and for spasons," as well as “ for days and for years ;" to prognosticate extraordinary political revolutions, as well as to mark the ordinary vicissitudes of day and night, and of the seasons of the year, Gen. i, 14 ; and accordingly our Lord declares, “ There shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars. Among the prognostics of his second coming, Luke xxi. 25, 27. Heb. ix. 28. He thus reproached the incorrigible blindness and obstinacy of the unbelieving Jews, shortly before ; Hypocrites ! ye know how to

discern discern the face of the sky, (or foretel the weather) but are ye not able {to discern) the signs of the seasons ?(Ta onjhela tui xasgwx) Matt, xvi. 3. Luke xiii. 56.

The word napuole, (which it is remarkable, first occurs in this place, throughout the NEW TESTAMENT, and is no where found in the septuagint version of the canonical books of the OLD) properly denotes “ actual presence," or " personal appearance ;" thus the Corinthians objected to St. Paul, that “ his bodily presence was weak;" (Topscla TY OWJCTOS) 2. Cor. x. 10: and it is opposed to TEBOICE absence," Phil. ii. 12. And this is manifestly its meaning in all those passages of the Epistles, where it is unequivocally applied to denote the second advent of CHRIST; such as 1. Cor. xv. 23 ; 1. Thess. ii. 19. and iii. 13; and iv. 15; 2. Thess. ii. 1. and which therefore, help to fix and ascertain its precise and proper signification, in this place, and in the following passages of OUR LORD's discourse relative thereto, Matt. xxiv. 27-37-39: in all which places, it is synonymous with amoxarelos, “ revelation," 1. Cor. i. 7 ; 2. Thess, i, 7 ; 1. Pet. i. 7; and iv, 13; Luke xvii. 30, &c; or with Emipaveld, appearance.2. Thess. ii. 8; 1. Tim. vi. 14; 2. Tim. iv. 8; Til. ij. 13, &c,

But by the Advocates of the double sense, it is applied secondarily, to denote“ any remarkable interposition of Christ in the government of his Church;” and especially, in this place, the signal chastisement of the Jews, by his armies,” (the Roman) Matt. xxii. 7.

The principal arguments advanced to support this secondary sense of the term, are the following: i.

1. That“ the sign of the Son of Man coming in the clouds of Heaven.Matt. xxiv. 30. in OUR LORD's specific answer to this question ; (origio nally given in the famous prophecy of Daniel, vii. 13) did not denote particularly a visible appearance, but simply the execution of judgment; and that the Jews themselves, (not their enemies, as they supposed) were to be the object of that judgment.” And the BRITISH CRITIC, Nov. 1802, p. 541. assures us, that " Mr. Nisbett is particularly happy, in pointing out the expression of his “ coming in clouds," as intended to describe his coming in " vengeanec;" and in observing, that "the Jewish rulers discovered all the marks of rage, at the very thought of the MESSIAH's coming in clouds."-" All this,conclude these critics, “w conceive to be perfectly sound; as are the proofs brought forward by Mr. N. to show that our SAVI9ur certainly meant to speak of an event to happen within that generation :" these assigned proofs are,

2.“ Upon his entrance on his ministry, our LORD declared, that the kingdom of heaven wus AT HAND. (Matt. iv. 17.) And that he thus fixed the time of its coming, &c. . 3. “ Verily, I say unto you-shall not have gone over the cities of Israel, till the SON OF MAN le come,” (Matt. x. 23.) 14. And again, “ Verily I say unto you there be some standing here, who shall not taste of death, till they see the SON OF MAN coming in his kingdom.(Matt. xvi. 28.)

5. Verily I say unto you-THIS GENERATION shall not pass, till all. these things (of which his coming in his kingdom was the principal) be fulfilled" Heaven and Earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away!" (Matt. xxiv. 34-35.)

And And to these arguments so adopted and recommended by the BRITISH CRITIC we may add the following ; drawn from the corresponding chapters of Mark and Luke, which plainly limit the whole enquiry to the destruction of Jerusalem, and its prognostics :

6. “ Tell us, when shall these things] be; and what, THE SIGN when all these are to be fulfilled ?(Mark xii. 4.)

7. “ WHÈN shall these things] be ; and what, THE SIGN when all these are to come to pass ?(Luke xxi. 7.)

I shall examine each of these arguments, in order : confining myself at present, to

1. The first, and principal, founded on the alledged interpretation of the famous prophecy of Daniel, vii. 13-14. which, indeed, is entitled to still more attention, because it is patronized by the exemplary Bishop Porteus, in his excellent practical Lectures on St. Matthew's Gospel, in the following express terms:

" When the prophet Daniel is predicting the very appearance of CHRIST to punish the Jews, he describes Him as “ coming in the clouds of Heaven ; and there was given him dominion, und glory and a kingdoni.Lect. 19. p. 192.

The pious and profoundly learned Mede, one of the brightest luminaries of our Church, stiles the four kingdons of Daniel, a prophetical chronology of times, measured by the succession of four principal kingdoms, from the beginning of the captivity of Israel, until the mystery of GoD should. be finished.p. 654.

The fortunes of these four temporal kingdoms, of the Babylonians, Medo-Persians, Macedo-Grecians and Romans, and of the fifth, the spiritual kingdom of the Messiah, to be established upon earth, are foretold in two distinct symbolical visions, in the second and seventhi chapters.

In the former vision, B. C. 603, the first year of Nebuchadnezzar, these kingdoms are respectively denoted by the image composed of four several metals, gold, silver, 'brass, and iron mixed with clay; and the fifth, by " a stone cut out without hands, which, at first, smote the image upon his feet" (i. e. that part, which denoted the latter times of the Roman Empire); and afterwards, became a mountain and filled the whole earth:"- " In the days of these kings, [or before the end of these kingdoms] shall the God of HEAVEN raise up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed ; and his kingdom shall not be transferred to another people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms; and it shall stand for ever.” Dan. ii. 1-44.

Hence, in the New TesTAMENT, this fifth kingdom, is indiscriminately termed " the kingdom of God,” or the kingdom of Heaven;" because it was to be set up and established by THE GOD OF HEAVEN, under his vicegerent the MESSIAH upon earth. And this it was, iphose near approach was proclainied by our Lord's harbinger, the Baptist ; Matt. iii. 2. ; by our Lord himself, Matt. iv. 17. by his Apostles, Matt. x. 7. and Disciples, Luke x: 9. which actually commenced at his Resurrection, Luke xxiv. 47; Matt. xxviii. 18-20; Acts ü. 36-38; xiii. 38-39; Rom. i. 4; Heb. i. 3 ; and is still "to come.com on earth as it is in Heaven;" Matt. vi. 10, or, be fully established at our Lord's second

appearance,

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