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reefs, and each time our number was diminished. I was once so nearly washed away that I only felt the spar with the tips of my fingers; and I heard the mate, who was next me, say, (with an oath) "Are you going to leave us too?" The next sea, however, most for tunately threw me back, and I regained my hold.

. When day dawned, there were only six of us left. We descried land several miles to leeward, but could see nothing of the ship, except a few fragments of the wreck driving along with us. Early in the morning, when on the tops of the waves, we observed the boltsprit, with above eight of the crew upon it. They were not within hail, and we could give no assistance to each other.

Before we reached the shore, three more of our companions, overcome with cold and fatigue, were forced to quit their hold. Their fate gave us but little concern, for we expected every moment to share the same ourselves. At length about mid-day we drove past the end of a reef, within which the water was smooth, with a fine sandy bottom. We touched the ground about a quarter of a mile from the shore, but were so much worn out that we had scarcely strength to wade that distance.' pp. 45-47.

Of all those who left the ship and clung to the mast, three only survived, viz. the Captain, the Mate, and Campbell. The second mate, the boatswain, and two seamen, reached the shore on the boltsprit, but the latter were so exhausted, that they soon after expired. Of twenty-nine living individuals, only five remained. The shore on which they were cast, was the dreary and unproductive island of Sannack, Halibut Island of Cook. Providentially, they discovered the long-boat in a bay at a small distance from the tent which they had constructed out of planks and other materials thrown up by the sea, and they were thus enabled to procure many articles of food and clothing, as well as sails, cordage, and even part of the cargo, from that part of the wreck which still held together.

'One or two of the seamen's chests drove ashore, and among them mine; it contained only one shirt and my bible, which I had put into one of those squares common in sailors' chests for holding case-bottles, and in which it was firmly fixed, in consequence of having swelled with the water. I was at great pains in drying it in the sun, and succeeded so well that I could read any part of it. It was afterwards saved from a second wreck; and in my future hardships and sufferings, the perusal of it formed my greatest consolation. It is still in my possession, being the only article I brought with me when I returned to my native country." pp. 52, 53.

At length they were discovered by the natives, who kindled a fire by the friction of two pieces of dry wood, and thus procured for them a luxury, which till then they had not enjoyed, a dressed dinner. These friendly savages supplied them with such provisions as they could spare, and despatched a

eanoe to the commandant of the Russian settlement at Oonalashka, who soon after arrived in person. The long-boat was now fitted out for a voyage to Alexandria, the principal Russian settlement in the Fox or Aleutian Islands, and Campbell was one of the hands appointed to navigate it.

Our little vessel made better weather than could have been expected, and so long as it continued moderate, she scudded before the sea perfectly dry; we boomed out the foresail on the weather side, and the wind being fair, proceeded on our voyage at a great rate. About noon it freshened into a smart gale, and the sea rose considerably, frequently curling over the stern in an alarming manner. Our open cockpit rendered this extremely dangerous, till we adopted an expedient of which I fortunately recollected having read in the voyages of some Dutch navigators, who used oil to smooth the sea. Upon trying the experiment, it proved an effectual remedy. We lashed a keg of oil upon the taffrail, allowing a small stream to run from it, which spread a scum over the surface in our wake, and completely prevented the waves from topping.' p. 69.

After a hazardous voyage, they reached their destination, where they made a stay of three weeks, and then set sail on their return, in the same boat which had heen thoroughly repaired. This voyage was most disastrous to poor Campbell; the boat was wrecked, and in the effort to reach a neighbouring settlement, his hands and feet were frozen, and on his return to Alexandria, he was compelled to submit to the amputation of both his feet, and two of his fingers. Owing, as it would appear, to the injudicious conduct of the Russian surgeon, who did not operate sufficiently high up the limb, the wounds did not heal, nor has the skin ever since grown completely over them. His case excited great interest; governor Baranoff and the officers of the ships in the harbour, raised a handsome subscription for him, and he was employed in teaching the English language to some of the native children. At length he was enabled to obtain a passage on board Captain Lisianski's favourite ship, the Neva, then under a different commander, who had been educated in the British navy; the vessel itself was English-built.

Campbell's present destination was the Sandwich Islands, from which he expected to procure a passage to his native country, and the information which he was thus enabled to obtain respecting their present state, is both interesting and important. When these islands were first discovered by Captain Cook, in 1778, Terreoboo was king of Owhyhee, and the other islands were under the dominion of their respective chiefs. MaihaMaiha or Tamaahmaah, the present chief, was the nephew of Terreoboo. By a series of revolutions not very clearly ascertained, and by a train of enterprises wisely planned, and executed

with skill and intrepidity, Tamaahmaah has made himself master of the whole groupe, excepting the Islands of Atooi and Oneehow, and of these he is supposed to meditate the conquest. This extraordinary man has neglected nothing that might tend to enlarge and consolidate his power. He holds out every inducement in his power to Europeans; he treats them with the utmost confidence and kindness, and when they express any wish to quit his service, they are free to follow their inclinations. When Campbell asked his permission to return, he first inquired if he was dissatisfied with his treatment, and on receiving for answer, that there was no other motive than an anxiety to revist former scenes, and to renew old friendships, he said, in Campbell's version of his idiom, " if his belly told him "to go, he would do it; and that if mine told me so, I was at "liberty."

He has workmen of various descriptions, both native and European; his guards are armed with musquets, and go through a regular exercise; his navy amounts to nearly sixty decked vessels, one of which carries sixteen guns, and even among his own subjects, he can command the services of many expert scamen. From the advantageous situation of these islands, they are frequently visited by the ships which cross the Pacific Ocean. They produce vegetables in abundance, and great attention is now paid to the breeding of live stock. The government is despotic, subject, however, to certain prescriptive restraints, which the most uncontrolled monarchs seldom find it safe to break through. The various departments of the administration were confided to different chiefs, who were, themselves under the direction of an elderly chief, of the name of 'Naai.' As this personage exercised the functions of prime minister, the Europeans had given him the nickname of Billy Pitt, and he had taken so great a fancy to the appellation, as to appear by no means pleased when addressed by any other


The principal duties of the executive were, however, entrusted to the priests; by them the revenues were collected, and the laws enforced. Superstition is the most powerful engine by which the latter purpose is effected; actual punishment being rare. I knew only one instance of capital punishment; which was that of a man who had violated the sanctity of the Morai. Having got drunk, he quitted it during taboo time, and entered the house of a woman. He was immediately seized, and carried back to the Morai, where his eyes were put out. After remaining two days in this state, he was strangled, and his body exposed before the principal idol.

The method of detecting theft or robbery, affords a singular instance of the power of superstition over their minds. The party who has suffered the loss, applies to one of the priests, to whom he presents a pig, and relates his story.

The following ceremony is then performed: The priest begins by rubbing two pieces of green wood upon each other, till, by the friction, a kind of powder, like snuff, is produced, which is so hot, that, on being placed in dry grass, and blown upon, it takes fire; with this a large pile of wood is kindled, and allowed to burn a certain time. He then takes three nuts, of an oily nature, called tootooee; having broken the shells, one of the kernels is thrown into the fire, at which time he says an anana, or prayer; and while the nut is crackling in the fire, repeats the words, Muckeero:o kanaka ai kooee, that is, Kill or shoot the fellow. The same ceremonies take place with each of the nuts, provided the thief does not appear before they are consumed.

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This, however, but seldom happens; the culprit generally makes his appearance with the stolen property, which is restored to the owner, and the offence punished by a fine of four pigs. He is then dismissed, with strict injunctions not to commit the like crime in future, under pain of a more severe penalty. The pigs are taken to the Morai, where they are offered up as sacrifices, and afterwards eaten by the priests.

Should it happen that the unfortunate criminal does not make his appearance during the awful ceremony, his fate is inevitable; had he the whole island to bestow, not one word of the prayer could be recalled, nor the anger of the Etooah appeased. The circumstance is reported to the king, and proclamation made throughout the island, that a certain person has been robbed, and that those who are guilty have been prayed to death.

So firm is their belief in the power of these prayers, that the culprit pines away, refusing to take any sustenance, and at last falls a sacrifice to his credulity.' pp. 170-3.

It should seem that notwithstanding the prevalence of this superstitious feeling, men of stronger minds are exempt from its influence. While Campbell was on the island, a report was spread that some person had prayed the king to death. To counteract the spell, the daughter of one of the chiefs took her station in front of the royal dwelling, and prostrating herself, prayed with great apparent fervency. We should not suppose that if Tamaahmaah had put much faith in the bane, he could have been greatly tranquillized by so simple a remedy. Campbell does not appear to have felt much curiosity respecting the religious opinions of the islanders. He states that they have one principal deity, Etooah, to whom they attribute the creation of the world; and seven or eight subordinate divinities, whose images are placed in the Morai, and to whom, as well as to the Etooah, offerings are made. Their religious seasons occur as often as four times in the month, continuing from sun-set to sun-rise. The rites consist of prayer, conversation, and sacrificing and eating pigs. It does not seem that the observance of these holydays, is by any means universal.

⚫ During the period called Macaheite, which lasts a whole month,

and takes place in November, the priests are employed in collecting the taxes, which are paid by the chiefs in proportion to the extent of their territories; they consist of mats, feathers, and the produce of the country. The people celebrate this festival by dancing, wrestling, and other amusements.

The king remains in the Morai for the whole period; before entering it, a singular ceremony takes place. He is obliged to stand till three spears are darted at him. He must catch the first with his hand, and with it ward off the other two. This is not a mere formality. The spear is thrown with the utmost force; and should the king lose his life, there is no help for it.' pp. 178-9.

Campbell expresses a very natural astonishment that there should have been no missionaries resident on the island, and it does indeed appear that a fair opening presents itself for the labours of pious, wise, and prudent men. Tamaahmaah is not likely to permit rash and intrusive conduct, but we should hope that even his own powerful mind would not be reluctant to examine, nor obstinate to reject, the bright evidences of Gospel truth. Of this great man, the following is Mr. Campbelt's description.

In 1809 the king seemed about fifty years of age; he is a stout, well-made man, rather darker in the complexion than the natives usually are, and wants two of his front teeth. The expression of his countenance is agreeable, and he is mild and affable in his manners, and possesses great warmth of feeling, for I have seen him shed tears upon the departure of those to whom he was attached, and has the art of attaching others to himself. Although a conqueror, he is extremely popular among his subjects; and not without reason, for since he attained the supreme power, they have enjoyed repose and prosperity. He has amassed a considerable treasure in dollars, and possesses a large stock of European articles of every description, particularly arms and ammunition; these he has acquired by trading with the ships that call at the islands. He understands perfectly well how to make a bargain; but is unjustly accused of wishing to over-reach in his dealings. I never knew of his taking any undue advantages on the contrary, he is distinguished for upright and honourable conduct in all his transactions. War, not commerce, seems to be his principal motive in forming so extensive a navy. Being at peace, his fleet was laid up in ordinary during the whole time of my stay. When he chooses to fit it out, he will find no ditficulty in manning his vessels. Independently of the number of white people he has constantly about him, and who are almost all sailors, he will find, even among his own subjects, many good sea-men. He encourages them to make voyages in the ships that are constantly touching at the islands, and many of them have been as far as China, the north-west coast of America, and even the United States.' pp. 211—13.

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It is said that he was at one time strongly addicted to the use o ardent spirits; but that, finding the evil consequences of the practice,

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