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bly excite in others, the wish of enlarging their knowledge of the period to which they refer.

• The Low Countries rebelled against Spain, in consequence of the same king Philip persisting to give activity to the Inquisition, which had been established there by his father Charles V., though it had remained in a state of suspense, owing to the opposition of the inhabitants; and also to introduce it into Brabant, where it had hitherto been impossible to effect its erection. In the year 1567, he consequently sent inquisitor Alonso del Canto to superintend its organization, under the rigorous form the inquisition had assumed, through the efforts of Torquemada. The Flemish, who till then had lived under a constitution somewhat liberal, and therefore trembled at the bare name of the Inquisition, seeing their privileges trampled to the ground, and their remonstrances disregarded, appealed to force as the only refuge left them. All orders of society, from the hardy rustic to the highest nobles and clergy, rose up against the establish. ment, with an enthusiasm only equalled by the implacable hatred, with which they detested so monstrous an institution. They considered it contrary to divine and human laws, more cruel than the greatest tyrants of history, and an infernal invention, intended to build up the fortunes of a few wretches, insatiable in avarice and ambition, out of the spoils of honourable families, and at the expence of public happiness. They next proceeded to form a regular conspiracy, binding themselves to each other's aid and defence, and calling down the anger of God and man, if they laid down their arms before they had completely secured their liberty.

The Duke of Alva, Don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo, a good sol. dier but a sanguinary character, proceeded to suppress this rebellion, at the head of an army chiefly composed of veterans. The people, inexperienced in the art of war, and badly equipped, were over: thrown in the first onsets, being unable to withstand the impetuosity, and guard against the stratagems of the Spanish general." But neither these misfortunes, nor the atrocious punishments inflicted by the Duke, on Counts Egmont and Horn, as well as on the other persons of distinction, whom he oçdered to be beheaded ; nor the consternation he spread throughout all the provinces, by condemning thousands of citizens to the sword, gallows, and flames, were able to induce the people to submit to the Inquisition; nor did this parade of violence produce any other effect, than to confirm the idea they al. ready entertained of its cruelty. Daily irritated still more, misfortunes only added to the courage of the insurgents, and they acquired new energies, when the heavy chains which the conquered had to endure, rushed upon their minds. The result of these inconsiderate and oppressive plans of the Spanish Government, was the dismemberment of the Seven Provinces, which afterwards constituted the republic of Holland, by which means the then colossal power of Spain was so greatly diminished, and the national character tanished.' Vol. I. pp. 117-120.

So perisb all attempts to enslave those on whoin God bas set bis hinage, by enduing them with reason, and whom he can

make immortal by the illuminations of bis spirit, and the communications of his grace! So united be the feelings and the sentiments, and so heroic and determined be the resistance of the oppressed, in all cases in which lawless power aspires to the dominion of the human conscience, and arrogates the office of being its judge! And such, while the earth endures, be the success attendant on all the struggles and the conflicts in which man associated with man contends for that true liberty, in the possession of which alone he can feel and assert the dignity of his nature, and pursue the objects of a rational felicity! Xay the sun, at every successive rising, be pouring his irradiations among newly emancipated tribes of men, till all be free; and with the utter overthrow of all despotic power, and the extinction of its very name, may the bitter sorrows of the injured and oppressed cease, and the universal prevalence of truth prove to be the dominion of happiness and peace. Let God arise, let bis enemies be scattered, and let them that hate him flee before him. Come

forth out of thy royal chamber, O Prince of all the kings of the • earth; put on the visible robes of thy imperial majesty ; take

up that unlimited sceptre which thy Almighty Father hath be

queathed thee; for now the voice of thy bride calls thee, and • all creatures sigh to be renewed.'

(To be continued.)

Art. IV. The Country Pastor ; or, Fifteen Sermons, Doctrinal,

Practical, and Experimental, designed for Parochial and Domestic Use: to which is annexed, A Funeral Discourse, on the Death of the Rev. Earl Gilbee, D.D. By the Rev. George Bugg, B. A. Author of “ Spiritual Regeneration not necessarily connected with

“ Baptism,” &c. 12mo. pp. 354. London. 1817. THES THESE discourses are plain, serious, evangelical, and judi

cious : and considering them as designed to be used as Sermons, we do not think it any real disparagement to them to say, that neither in point of style, nor of thought, are they any thing more than plain and serious. They treat the following subjects : The right Employment of the Mind–The Corruption of Human Nature=The Guilt and Misery of Fallen Man-The Nature of Regeneration - The Necessity of Regeperation—The Fountain of all Grace--Satan vanquished— The Nature and Efficacy of Divine Faith-Hope restiug on Divine

Truth- The Efficacy of Christ's Love The Throne of GraceThe High Priest of our Profession-The important InquiryThe Christian's Pattern - The Believer copying his Pattern.

This volume, though by no means of a controversial character, is evidently written under the perpetual recollection of the important controversies which at present rend the body of which Mr. Bugg is a member. We are pleased, indeed, with the manly, earnest, and magnanimous manner in which he arowe

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his conviction of the vital importance of the agitated questions. Mr. B. seems duly impressed with the persuasion, that the salvation accomplished for men by our Lord Jesus Christ, has no part or agreement with the salvation devised by men for themselves; that Divine Truth is not a deposite committed to the discretion of its ministers, to be bartered, even in part, for peace, much less for a shew of uniformity. He is not of the number of those (it may be well meaning persons) who spend themselves in working at a reconciliation between light and darkness. He is, we doubt not, convinced, that a compromise, or, as it would perhaps be termed, a conciliatory line of conduct, on the part of the servants of Christ, is nothing less than treason to their Master, and cruelty to their fellow men ; that the ingenuity which would be employed in representing the difference, as amounting only to the value of a logomacby, can be excused from the suspicion of originating in the craft of secular priestism only, by the supposition of the extremest simplicity of a novice. In a word, that so long as extrinsic circumstances bind together, in the same conimunion, those who know the truth, and those who know it not, professed agreeinent, were it practicable, is *not desirable; that tranquillity is a greater evil than contention; and that the stillness of peace must ever be fatal to the cause of Him who came to send fire on the earth,” and “ not peace, 66 but a snord,"

• The doctrine of regeneration,' remarks Mr. Bugg, more than any other doctrine, is vital, important, and experimental : it involves the salvation or damnation of our hearers. If we, then (addressing himself to his brethren) should be ourselves ignorant of this divine change, we shall almost necessarily lead others into error respecting it. God may, indeed, sometimes bless means for an end never contemplated by the instructor, but it is a general truth, that we cannot teach others, for their good, what we know not ourselves. Should we, then, be“ blind leaders of the blind.” we must expect to “ fall,” with the addition of their guilt upon our souls. If we, instead of being “ moved by the Holy Ghost." to teach sinners this pure, this only way to heaven, either omit this doctrine, or take pains to pervert it, make it unnecessary, or explain it away,—if we consider it as a mere relative privilege confined to baptism, or describe it as simply a change of religious sentiments, or only a reformation from rice, we deceive the souls of those who are committed to our carewe lay a most awful stumbling block in the very threshold of their salvation ;-we thus seal up, as it were, their souls in meplal blindness; and we thus ensure our own damnation, with this tremendous accumulation of guilt-God will “ require their blood" at our hands ! p. 72.

To those who, with Mr. Bugg, entertaio, upon this fundamental doctrine, sentiments so just and so serious, how painful must be the recollection of the many thousand congregations in


this Protestant country, which, for want of those counteracting explanations, those nice, and difficult, and yet absolutely essentiul distinctions, which inight seen to reduce them to a barm. less consonancy with Bible truth, are left to receive the first, and obvious, or, as it might be termed, the honest sense of certain unbappy forms! Under the impression of views, such as we bave just quoted, with what an emotion of trembling and distress must the mind revert to the fact, that a very large majority of those for whose eternal welfare the Church of England, that is, each individual who gives her constitutions his support, is responsible, are exposed to the aggravated disadvantage of having the natural prejudices of the carnal mind against a spiritual change, not simply undisturbed, but actually corroborated, by forms which they are taught to consider as the standard of the standard of religious truth! That, to such a mass of our countrymen, what'should have been for their benefit, is become a snare,' the light that is in them only darkness, and the

glorious gospel of the blessed God,' as it is edited and ministered by the Church, is rendered, in a peculiar and emphatic sense, a savour of death unto death," to the people ! But we rejoice in the hope that, by the increase in the Church of Eng. land of such teachers as Mr. Bugg, and the dissemination of writings such as his, the number is daily diminishing of those who, when they have duly subjected their infant offspring to the mysterious rites of the Church, go away in their simplicity with the fatal persuasion that it is in fact, as the priest hath assured them, namely, that their child is, indeed, regenerate ; that it hath pleased the most mercitul Father to regenerate their • infant with his Holy Spirit, to receive him for bis own child

by adoption, and that' by the laver of regeneration in baptism,

he is now received into the number of the children of God.' We would fain indulge the expectation, founded, as we are willing to believe, upon the signs of the times, and the promises of the Divine word, that the period is not far distant, when the destructive errors which at present occupy niore than three corners of this boasted land of bibles, from whencesoever they may derive their support, shall be thorougbly exploded, and pothing be suffered to reinain among us, whose tried effect is, as Mr. B. expresses it, to lay a most awful stumbling block in the very threshold of the people's salvation.'

We might make numerous extracts, that would set in a very favourable light, both the judicious evangelical spirit and the ministerial fervour of Mr. Bugg's compositions. Two or three short quotations will be sufficient to corroborate our general recommendation

In the sermon on the Nature and Efficacy of Divine Faith, Mr. B. remarks, that

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• It expects and comes to the Saviour, for the purpose of obtaining his blessing. There are three false views of faith not uncommon amongst us, which I earnestly wish to guard your immortal souls ngainst. The one is, the considering it as a phárisaical kind of national religion, which supposes that all is done for us in baptism, and by a decent education: and that nothing more than outward decorum, and general respect for religion, ought to be expected, or can be experienced. The second (which, though under different views, is much the same as i he former, with respect to the inefficacy of faith as a sanctifying principle in the soul) is this; that every thing is so performed for the Church of God in Christ Jesus, that it would be legal and derogatory to the perfect work of Christ, to expect a real and sanctifying change of heart by faith in him. The third is a wild unauthorised notion, of an influence nearly miraculous, as if something like a vision, revelation, and instantantaneous deliverance from all feelings of sin, were to be sought for and expected. It is the very nature of unbelief to expect nothing, or to expect too much.' pp. 137--138.

From the view he bas given of the efficacy of Christ's love,' Mr. B. derives' an excuse for a minister's earnestness in mat' ters of salvation.'

· And is it,' he asks, indeed, become necessary that we should make an apology for being in earnest ? Do our hearers think that we might speak unto them smoother things, or in a more indifferent manner or do our brethren, certain ot them, think it necessary to charge our feeble imitation of Christ and his Apostles, as an uncalledfor exhibition of ardour, or as a proof of being zealous over much? What! are men's souls become of less value? or can they be saved in any other way than they could be in St. Paul's days ? What! are the terrors of the Lord less dreadful? or our state by nature less dangerous ? Is Heaven less desirable, or eternal death more tolerable ? What! my brethren, has Christ's love lost its power? Did he lay down his life, and shall we cease to commend his love? Did his zeal consume him, and shall our's be cold as a stone? Are St. Paul's active labours and fervid affections to be commended, but not imitated? What, then, if we are esteemed enthusiastic, would be thought of him, were he here?' pp. 196, 197.

The Funeral Discourse, which closes the volume, is prefaced by an implicit (Mr. Bugg, we dare say, would not think we did him injustice were we to call it an explicit) avowal of Calvinism. Under circumstances where such an avowal costs nothing to the individual, but is rather likely to afford a gratification to sectarian feelings, its value is small, indeed, to however much of odium it may be supposed to expose bim who makes it. But, in the Established Church, which shelters under one external profession, almost every variety of theological sentiment, and where there is, therefore, the greatest facility afforded for holding and wearing things without their names, and where a very little ingenuity will suffice, so to modify the enunciation of a system

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