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as to enable one suspected or accused to say, “ I know not the “man,”—in the Church of England we consider the avowal of Calvinism to be entitled to praise, as being a line of conduct at once manly and candid.

From the Sermon above named, we shall make our last extract.

• Reflect, O! my reader: think, O my soul, what it is to realise such a declaration as this," for me, to live is Christ !" What do I know of this? What do you, my dear reader, feel, enjoy, and exhibit of this character ? Oh, consider this is the life of the soul-it is Heaven begun.

• Do you ask, as some do, how little religion will take us to Heaven? How much conformity to the world will be admitted ? how much selfishness or indolence we may indulge? Oh! shame. Why do you not ask at once, how much you may be unlike Christ, and yet be a Christian ! How wicked you may be, and yet be holy! How miserable you may be, and yet be happy !-St. Paul did not thus, O time-serving, unchristian souls, St. Paul did not thus teach, and would you thus learn Christ? He could not be content, unless the temper--the mind - the unwearied diligence-the flaming ardour-the heavenly-mind. edness—the deadness to the world, which were in Christ, were found in himself. Such was St. Paul.' pp. 324, 325.

But before we take our leave of the Country Pastor, we must state the difficulty we have had in attempting to affix a determi. nate meaning to two or three expressions of which he makes use.

Suchi, for instance, as the following:

• True doctrines and vital religion commonly go together; but there is a too frequent separation of what God has united. We often discover an orthodox, and sometimes an evangelical creed, where there is no genuine life of religion, and where no soul-reviving efficacy of the doctrines professed is earnestly desired or expected.' p. 252.

Had these terms, ' orthodox and evangelical,' been used copulatively, we should have passed the sentence as containing a mere pleonasm, calling for no remark, both words being to be understood in their primitive sense, which refers them to one and the same thing. But, placed together thus disjunctively, they assume the distinctive and cant meaning which their recent use in this country has affixed to them. Now, understanding the term orthodox, opposed to the term evangelical, as designating the system of the party that manifestly and professedly oppugns the notion of its being reasonable earnestly to desire and expect a • soul-reviving efficacy in the doctrines professed,' we cannot understand the appropriateness of stating it as a case of exception, too frequently occurring, that an orthodox creed is found upaccompanied with the genuine life of religion.'

Again : Mr. Bugg, in reprehending an undue severity of reproof, remarks very justly, that. The trué penitent is discou

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raged, sinks in sorrow, and pines away in secret ;-seeking ' and enquiring candidates for spiritual sociality will be deterred ' from joining the Church, &c. p. 121. Over this last phrase, joining the Church, we have paused some moments in a fruitless pursuit of surmises as to the actual and definite idea present in the mind of the writer, when it came from his pen; nor, of those which have occurred to us, can we fix upon one, the supposition of which is not loaded with difficulty. Church, here, Mr. B. cannot be supposed to intend the real invisible Catholic Church of Christ, because persons whom he would designate as “ true penitents, and as seeking enquiring 'candidates for spiritual sociality,' are such as have already joined, or, to speak more properly, have already been joined to the Church-the mystical body.

But if by the Church is meant the Church of England, the phrase- joining the Church,' sounds oddly, as intending the ordinary way in which the infant population of this country, are by baptism made members of it ; nor does it appear in what cases such a joining is obstructed by the supposed evil referred to in the context.

But are we to understand by this joining the Church,' the coming over to her communion of the different classes of dissidents by which she is surrounded ? and does Mr. Bugg mean to state it as his opinion, that that wholesome branch of Christian duty-reproof, so essential to a 'godly discipline,' is maintained, and exercised, and carried even to such a faulty excess in the Church of England, as to amount to an actual impediment in the way of so desirable an in-gathering? But, to be perfectly serious, should we understand the phrase in the only sense which can make it intelligible in the connexion in which it stands, and in nearly the sense it would have conveyed to us coming from the pen of a Dissenting minister, we are faced by another difficulty. That a clergyman, not within the bounds of the selected circle, but upon the house-top, should be so incautious, in such terms, directly to refer to certain, wholly uncanonical, and in fact puritanical, arrangements, which, by the by, spring almost inevitably from puritanical doctrines, that a clergyman, we say, in referring to such arrangements, should use no saving word, but talk distinctly about joining the Church, to say the least, does quite surpass our expectations. At any rate, it is an accident which well deserves to arrest the attention of those who are keeping a watchful eye upon the movements of the times; especially as it is a symptom of the extent to which some of the Great PRINCIPLES OF PROTESTANT NONCONFORNITY are at present triumphing within the pale of the Establishment.

At page 277, it is remarked of our Lord, that

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• His attention to all the feasts and ceremonies appointed to the Jews, shews us his faithfulness “ to him that appointed him.” Circumcision, baptism, and all the usual institutions under the Mosaic economy he regularly attended to. And the constancy with which he was found at the temple worship, was evidence of his sacred regard for the established religion of those days.'

Our Lord, in his obedience to the ordinances of the Níosaic institution, did nothing more than honour by his conduct as a man, the appointment of that House of which, as we are told, he was himself the builder;-it 66 his own house.” He did, indeed, give the most striking evidences of his regard to the established worship of Jehovah, in the Temple which crowned the chosen Mount. Of these rites, no Jew doubted, (nor indeed was there room for controversy on the subject,) that they were of Divine anthority. So iar all is very plain. But dues Mr. B. intend to suggest to his readers, that a good and a solid there. fore, connects this statement with such a consequence as this, namely, that those who would follow Christ, are, as a matter of course, to pay a sacrerl regard to the Establisher religion of *these days? What vastly different things then must this word established, be made to represent ! In the former case, it means nothing less than the setting up of a system of observ. ances by a miraculous interposition, and with respect to neither the authority nor the nature of which, any doubt could be entertained. In the latter case, the word established means nothing more than a particular system, selected from the mass of controverted opinions, by a certain set of men, themselves subjected to all those influences wliich commonly direct the inovements of a court; and such a system passed into law, the profession of it being secured at once by bounties and by penalties. But Mr. Bugg, we are sure, could not formally draw such an inference. Those who know anything of human nature, are aware into how wide an aberration from truth the mass of mankind pay be drawn by the frequent use of mere phrases, which, while they produce their effect, excite no attention that might lead to examination. We do not therefore think that we overstep the line of our duties, in making a passing remark which may originate such needful exainioation. We hope indeed our integrity would carry lis so far as to do the same, did the fallacy tend to the establishment of our most favourite opinions. We consider that we do a man an injury, whom we misleud even into the truth; and our maxim is, for that which is capable of being defended by reasons good and strong, let nothing be advanced butreusons good and strong.

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Art. V. A System of Physiological Botany ; illustrated by Nine En

gravings. By the Rev. P. Keith, F. L. S. Vicar of Bethser. den, Kent; and Perpetual Curate of Marr, Yorkshire. In Two

Volumes, 8vo. pp. 1004. Price £1. 6s. London ; 1816. THE astonishingly rapid progress which has been made in the

Arts and Sciences, during the last two centuries, is to be attributed mainly to the inductive method of investigation, in which our immortal Bacon laid the basis of a solid Philosophy. There is, however, another collateral cause of the advance. ment of human knowledge, and which naturally arose out of the rigid principles of the Baconian method; we mean, the distribution of the objects of our speculations into distinct departments. The intellectual advantage derived from pursuing such a method, is not dissimilar to the improvements which have taken place in mechanical operations, by the division of labour ; a facility of research, and a more accurate perception of truth, are naturally attendant upon the practice of viewing subjects, not in a confused mass, but arranged under certain classes. When we are pursuing a certain order of facts, with a particular reference to well-defined objects of investigation,--excluding such as fall not immediately within the scope of our researches, not only is the attention riveted more closely to the phenomena which come under our notice, but truth itself is displayed to our observation, with a greater force and simplicity. Science (as Lord Bacon has remarked) is only ''

the image of truth. We may extend this just observation, by the remark that truth, when presented to the mind in all its involved coir binations, without method, reaches our intellectual faculties as so many scattered rays would reach the optic nerve, producing no impression which bears a nice correspondence with the simple phenomena of nature : but truth, when viewed under a perfect distribution of its parts, leaves a welldefined idea in the mind;—its rays, instead of being dispersed in a confused flood of light, are gathered into their appropriate pencils, converge to their respective foci, and paint a mental image, * exquisitely conformable to the actual object in the examination of which we are employed.

To say nothing more upon the very great advantages which have been derived from a methodical distribution of the objects of our speculations, in other departments of human knowledge, it must be manifest, to every thinking person, that our disco

* Of course we shall not be understood as using this word with reference to Mr. Locke's exploded theory of ideal images; we merely adopt it to express the correspondence which exists between the perception of truth, and truth as an essence independent of our knowledge. Scientia nihil aliud est quàm veritatis IMAGO, nam veritas essendi, et veritas cognoscendi, idem sunt.'

veries in the physical sciences have been rapidly promoted by this circumstance; the investigations of philosophers having been conducted, in modern times, with reference to particular classes of phenomena, instead of having been pursued in the general, discursive, confuseil manner of most of the ancient writers upon such subjects. All our researches into the king

, domis of nature may evidently be classed, with convenience, under two grand divisions,--the systematical, and the analytical methods. The artificial or systematical method, leads us to view the various objects of nature with reference, principally, to their external characters. Its chief inportance consists in enabling us to arrange the materials of our contemplations into distinct families, so that each individual object may be perspicuously described, and accurately distinguished from every other in creation. The analytical method, is conversant with the constituent principles of mutual relation of the parts of bodies. It leads us to consider the affinities of Elementary proportions by which the particular conformation of the individual is determined, or the various functions upon which the phenomena connected with its existence depend. “If the subject of our investigations be matter endowed with organization and vitality, the analytical method resolves itself into a physiological inquiry; by wbich is meant, an investigation of the causes by which the phenomena exhibited by animated or simply organized matter are produced, and of the laws by which it is governed,-involving of course, a more intimate examination of its structure than would be necessary for, or even applicable to, the purposes of merely systematical arrangement.

In Botanical Science we have abundant proof of the advantages derived to philosophy from the separation of these two distinct objects of inquiry. By the ancients it was thought sufficient to treat of vegetables in the mass, without pursuing any very definite line of inquiry. Hence, their individual characters, their functions, their properties, their medicinal virtues, their habitat, were all blended together in one rude description; it is not therefore surprising, that (however valuable may be the incidental information which we desire from their works) very little has come down to modern times from these ancient sources in the form of scientific discovery. Systematical Botany was a science in its very infancy, so late as the middle of the sixteenth century; for the first ideas which deserve the appellation of Botanical arrangeineut, were communicated, at that period, almost cotemporaneously, by Gessner in Switzerland, and by Cæsalpinus in Italy. Vegetable physiology seeins to have been alınost uncultivated until a century later, when our countryman Dr. Nehemiah Grew, and Niarcellus Malpighi, a Bolognese, reaped the first fruits of a field which has since yielded an abundant harvest. Since the time of these indefatigable na

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