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brokeshire, the Eligug-stack, an immense detached columu, composed of strata once perhaps horizontal; but the soft mans is now so much inclined toward the sca, which dashes against its base, and with such a preponderating weigt:t of its upper portion, as to make it almost iniraculous that it should maintain itself in the air for an hour. Mr. Daniell's drawing perfectly corresponds to the idea conveyed in the description. Eligug is the denomination of a species of sea-fowl, by which, at a particular season of the year, during the time of incubation, this and other inaccessible rocks on this coast are occupied so thickly, on the tops and every ledge, as to cause these tenants very great inconvenience, and give frequent occasion for quarrels.
As to the state of intellect ainong the people, no recent stage of the adventure affords so remarkable an exbibition as that given in the account of the superstitions of St. Gowan's chapel and well, at the southernmost point of Pembrokeshire, to which chapel and well, it would seem, by this account, to be a common thing for diseased and lame people to resort, in the hope of a miraculous cure, or at least a cure in some more mysterious way than from any merely physical cause.
On taking the sea again froin Aberystwith, of which place we have a lively description, the voyagers had occasion to observe, with no small inquietude, how little security was afforded, by the extravagant demands of their boatmen, engaged at the place, for any tolerable knowledge of the proper channel among the shoals even no further off than three miles north of their own harbour. And here it is asserted generally, of the Welsh boatmed, that they are inferior to the English in local knowledge, skill, and intrepidity. The cause of this inferiority our Author fuds in the poor and narrow scale on which the fisheries are carried on, owing in a great measure to the poverty which precludes all large adventure. The boats, and all the equipments, diminutive
the distances ventured from land are short; and the men trained in this very limited service know but little, and dare but little, compared with those, for example, of the Kentish coast, from one harbour of which (Broad-stairs) I have seen,' says the Writer, in the mackerel season, a fleet
of nearly two hundred sail put to sea in an evening, the value • of each of which, with all her gear, miglit be estimated, on an average, at £150.
We are well pleased with the tone of enthusiasm in the feelIngs excited on first coming fully in view of Cader Idris and Snowdon, with their subordinate ranges, contemplated in one magnificent though partly very distant prospect. They appeared ' to me as a new creation, and I could scarcely regard them as
parts of a world formed for the use of man. The majestic character was not impaired in a very near approach to the former of thesu poble eminonces, at Barmouth, a place which, for any
I thing but its mountain views, the Writer pronounces to be, in • at its combivations, the ne plus ultra of every thing that is
cheerless and uncomfortable. It is built in horizontal ranges or tiers up a steep ascent, with such well adjusted relative dispo- :
sition of these tiers, that the smoke from the chimneys of the | lower, regularly and imperatively applies for admittance at the
doors and windows of the next above. The want of this luxury in the lowest range, which is near the level of the sea, is more. thancompensated by ' a high bank of sand before them, which not only intercepts their view of the sea, but sprightlily introduces itself with the west wind into every pervious cranny from the garrets to the ground. One cannot account for the strange indolence or ignorance of the inhabitants, in not attempting to consolidate these sands by vegetation ; though, when the wind blows strongly from the west, they actually. render the lower houses scarcely habitable.'
It is a 'watering-place;' and our Author takes occasion to descaut on the miserable ennui of the places so denominated, in terms the strength of which may be imagined when we say that they reach the difficult fault of exaggeration.
(To be continued.) Art. IV. The Inquisition Unmasked. By D. Antonio Puigblanch. Translated by William Walton, Esq. 2 Vols. 8vo.
(Concluded from page 252.) LA AWS for the support of social establishments, to be in ac
cordance with justice, and to promote the good of the community, must appeal to the hopes and fears of mankind, inspiring the innocent with confidence of protection, and awakening in the guilty the dread of punishment. The regulations and mode of judicial process established in the Inquisition, are founded on injustice, in a disregard of all the principles by which human society can maintain its relations and secure its legitimate
evds. Instead of its proceedings being adapted to alarm the I offender, and to inspire the unoffending with assurance of safet
an impossibility almost absolute on the part of the accused, to substantiate the justice of their cause, and facility almost houndless on the part of the Inquisition to aggrieve them, are the two principal hinges on which its judicial examinations turn, in criminal cases. This execrable tribunal exhibits the very perfection of craft and despotism.
Like an abortion, which it in fact is, of the ignorance and fanaticism of the middle ages, its judicial forms in po way differ from the impurity of its origin; and its code is an assemblage of all kinds of
barbarous legislation, till even illegality is therein reduced to system. 1 A tribunal which, regardless of every thing man holds sacred, such as good faith and respect to the Divinity, forces him to utter the sen
timents of his heart in order that they may serve as a motive of condemnation-a tribunal which surrounded by darkness, rests the issue of the most important affairs of which it takes cognizance in the impenetrable secrecy of its proceedings--a tribunal, in short, which fears no one on earth, for io no one is it answerable, not even to public opinion, whose censure tyrants themselves have not escaped, of what horrors must it not be capable, what monsters must it not harbour in its bosom? It is therefore no longer a subject of wonder that such a multitude of enormous crimes have been committed by this tribunal, and rendered its name so odious-crimes so much the more revolting and abominable, because they have been committed under the sanction of religion. Vol. I. p. 131.
The qualifications of a judge are at all times of primary consideration in the administration of law; but where the proceedings of a criminal tribunal are conducted in secrecy, and the powers of the judges are supreme, their qualifications are of the greatest possible moment. "That nothing may be wanting to the legitimacy of the title by which the Inquisition may challenge the possession of pre-eminent infamy, the ignorance and incom petency of the judges who preside at its tribunals, are included in the grievances which the Author enumerates and exposes.
• With regard to the inquisitors of Italy, John Calderini positively asserts the fact, and exhorts them to take counsel of experienced, men, as most of them are ignorant of the principles and practice of public law; adding, that otherwise they would be in danger of absolving the guilty and condemning the innocent*. Judges who are unacquainted with the principles of right and the precepts of the canon law, I make no hesitation to say, cannot know their obligations, or be fitted to sit on the bench. Respecting those of Portugal, Tavernier furnishes us with proofs, in what he relates of a Capuchin friar of the name of Ephraim de Nevers, who about the year 1600 was a prisoner in the Inquisition of Goa. When he was set at liberty, notwithstanding his great virtue and reserve, he could not refrain from complaining that no inconvenience he experienced was so great as that of seeing his fate in the hands of such ideot judges. Dr. Dellon affirms that he noticed this circumstance some years afterwards, when he was a prisoner in the same Inquisitiont. Hence do the Portuguese noble. men say, when they wish to joke about the backwardness of their children at college, that they will put them into the post of inquisitors or canonst. Vol. I. pp.
134-136. Nothing can more determinately attach the character of injustice to a government, or more clearly indicate its gross cor
* Johan. Calderini, Tractatus de Hæreticis Cap. VI. n. I.. « Quia Inquisitores ut plurimum sunt juris ignari, et possent faciliter sie decipi ut absolverent condemnandum, vel damnarent forsitan absolvendum, debent circa occurrentia processus communicare consilia perito: um in jure.”
+ Delion; Relation de l'Inquisition de Goa, Chap. XXVIII.
# Narrativa da Perseguiçaõ de Hippolito Joseph da Costa, written by himaeil. Tom. I.
ruptions and its tendency to absolute despotisın, than the sanction and encouragement which it extends to the practice of secret denunciation and to concealed informers. The Mosaic statutes (Lev. xix. 16-18.) were prohibitory of this evil, and prescribed the duty and obligations of the people for whom they were ordained, with the greatest clearness on this point. “Thou " shalt not go up and down as a tale-bearer (or informer) among " thy people, neither shalt thou stand against the blood of thy
neighbour - thou shalt not avenge nor bear any grudge against " the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour
as thyself.” The Roman law guarded the safety of the state and the honour of its citizens, by opposing themselves to the employment of spies and informers, which it was the business only of the despotic Emperors in times of great degeneracy and wickedness to encourage. In imitation of examples furnished only by the very worst governments, the Inquisition solicits in aid of its purposes and proceedings, the services of the basest and most degraded of the human species, and admits secret informers to its privacy and protection. It employs an agency which is as destructive of justice as it is subversive of humanity
The informer, although he may have acted inconsiderately, besides being exempt from punishment, in consequence of the sophistry that the impeachment is directed to produce the amendment and not the punishment of the accused, is a treacherous enemy, who strikes in an unguarded momentwhen he proceeds with bad faith, since the accused is never informed of his name, in order that he may be en. abled to state his objections and exceptions; rights which are conformable to nature, to the good order of society, and which the Inquisition alone has dared to refuse. On the other hand, a wide field is not only left open to informers to establish and carry on their malevolent and false criminations, but they are even invited and compelled to become accusers. What then is the check which this tribunal places on the informer? Certainly no other than the prudence of the judges which is the same as to say their arbitrariness*.
Popes Alexander IV., Urban IV., and Clement IV., granted three years indulgence to every one who may give aid to the inquisitors, and consequently to every secret informer.--Eymeric, Director. Inquisit. Part III. quæst. cxxviii. Pius V. moreover enacted, that no regular prelate, either by way of chastisement or penance, shall be allowed, for any fault whatever, to trouble any secret informer, being one of his subjects, during the period of five years from the date of his information laid, unless the Inquisition should agree thereto, for which purpose he is previously to consult it. Lupo de Bergamo, Eova Nux in edit. S. Inquisit. Part 1. Lib. iv. ditt. ix. art. iv. The penalty against the negligent and tardy, according to several pontifical decrees, is excommunication, and their being considered as abettors of heretics."
With regard to restrictions, none are to be expected in a denunci. ation actually commanded and ordained by the tribunal ; for even in. sensible beings would be compelled to inform, if it was in their power, or else incur the penalty of the highest excommunication. Unable to extend its jurisdiction over the physical order, for the purpose of carrying its scrutinies into effect, it over-turns the moral orders of things by silencing the dictates of reason, and stilling the purest sentiineots of humanity. At the same time that it attaches infinite importance to a word, and deems the persecution and death of him who uttered it as the only means of preserving religion and the state, it eagerly grasps at any instrument however weak it may be, any slight surmise, although it may have the strongest presumptions of right against it, and holds them in the light of props to the edifice it endeavours to sustain. Not only females and striplings under age, on whose judgment little reliarrce can be placed, but the infamous, those who are pronounced banes of society, and even the perjured, who are public.y known to disregard the sacred solemnity of an oath, are all admitted, and even enjoined, to lodge informations before this tribunal, without any other restriction than being bound to swear that they have been induced to this measure by no other impulse than a zeal for the faith and the dread of punishment. The Inquisition does not stop here. It believes, or feigns to believe, that the excommunicated, the heretic himself, nay, even the infidel, takes a true interest in religion when be subscribes lo an impeachment and is adipitted*. Legislators who thus unblushingly trampled on the rights of justice, could not be expected to pay any regard to the tender ties of domestic piety. Among us, therefore, one brother is not secure against another, the mother is rendered suspicious to her own children; and the spouse, or father of a family, busied in daily la. bour to provide sustenance for the objects of his tender love, in all of them has a continual spy, because it is thus the pharisaical inquisitor ordainst.” Vol. 1. pp. 174-177.
What an exhibition of accumulated evils do the preceding paragraphs contain! Can any thing be more iniquitous and revolting than the conduct of persons who, being themselves destitute of all religious qualifications, denounce others as offenders against religion ? Hypocrisy in all cases is detestable; in matters of religion it is peculiarly ocious ; but when practised, whether by a party or by individuals, for the purpose of reproaching and injuring others, or exposing them to peril, it surely reaches the height of consuminaie baseness. What effrontery must they possess who dieclaim against delinquencies with which they themselves are contaminated ? who take a prompt and eager part in the prosecution of persons charged with violations of laws which
* De liæret. Cap. Accusat. in. 6. What is said in this decretal of the witness, is also to be understood of the secret informer; for in fact he acts both parts. -Eymeric, Director. Inquisit. Part-II. Cap. xiii. et Part iii. n. 68.
f Eymeric, Director. Inquisit. Part II. Cap. Ixx,