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they habitually transgress? Proceedings of this kind, base as they are, are not limited to Inquisitors. There have been instances of the strongest invectives being uttered against the alleged profaneness of persons whom it was wished to punish, by men whose inouths are full of cursing and bitterness." "l'hey have been heard to inveigh against the tendency of actions to bring religion into contempt, wlio are themselves dishonouring it. Can any thing be more scandalous than for the unbelieving and the uulioly to affect zeal for a cause to which they are in heart opposed? Can any species of falsehood he inore atrocious than that which is committed by persons of this description standing forward as witnesses or accusers against otbers charged with being irreligious, and declaring themselves moved by zeal for the honour of religion, when, at the same time, they are averse to religion, impatient of its restraints, mockers of its solemnities, aud“ lovers of pleasure more than " lovers of God?"

We should extend our review of the present work to a length which would exceed the proper limits, were we to insert every passage wbich either on account of its interesting narrative or juminous argumentation, we have marked in our progress through the volumes; we must therefore content ourselves with laying before our readers such specimens of their contents as will be found in the following quotations.

When a denunciation has been made to the Inquisition, of persons charged with any of the supposed errors or crimes of which it takes cognizance; when false witnesses, it may be, have risen up against a man, and, breathing out cruelty against him, laid to his charge things which he knows not; when individuals of correct morals, but whose known or supposed opinions do not correspond with the tenets prescribed by a set of mortals as liable io error as any of their kind, are marked for crimination ; the informer and the witnesses are heard by the inquisitors, who, on receiving a ratification of their first report, impose silence upon them by tbe same oath which accompanied their declaration: this constitutes the summary impeachinent, which is laid before the Supreme Council, and its approbation being obtained, the arrest is carried into execution.

* This is given in charge to the high bailiff, who executes his commission by carrying with him a competent number of ministers, taking the necessary precautions to surprise the culprit, which is generally done at night. The law prescribes that the receiver and notary of sequestrations should also be present at the arrest, for in this tribunal confiscation forms an essential part of the process. The party then sets out, and dread and consternation seize on the culprit and his family. The thunderbolt launched from the black and angry cloud,

* Compilacion de Instrucciones, n. 6.

strikes not with such alarm as the sound of " DELIVER YOURSELT UP A PRISONER TO THE INQUISITION!!! (Dése v. preso por la Inquisicion.) Astonished and trembling, the unwary citizen hears the dismal voice, a thousand differept affections at once seize upon his panic-struck frame-he remains perplexed and motionless. His life in danger, his deserted wife and orphan children, eternal infamy, the only patrimony that now awaits his bereft family, are all ideas which rush upon his mind-he is at once agitated by an agony of dilemma and despair. The burning tear scarcely glistens on his livid cheek, the accents of woe die on his lips, and amidst the alarm and desolation of his family, and the confusion and pity of his neighbours, he is burne away to dungeons, whose damp and bare walls can alone witness the anguisla af his mind. Vol. 1. pp. 189, 190.

The horrors of such a situation are not to be conveved by even the inost eloquent description; words are utterly insufficient to represent the mental anguish and the complicated distress of scenes like this. How much is the whole interest of the case heightened by the cousisieration that this tremendous visitation may fall on persons of spotless reputation and of most meritorious character, and that it is directed by bigoted or dotard priests ho have been permitted to ascend the seat of secular authority, and by all that is appalling and terrific in suffering to opphold their dogmas and their superstitions ! Their unhappy victinis thus torn írom their families, are hurried off to the receptacles of the wretched, which, says our Author, are “extifices of such ancient and gloomy structure, that their sight alone caused terror.'

In one of these edifices, whose black and furrowed walls announce the melancholy gloom that reigns within ; massive piles, which have long withistood the injuries of time, and for ages witnessed the rising and setting of the sun without receiving comfort from its beams : şable and rugged structures, on which whole generations have looked with terror and dismay-in one of these edifices in short, which im. moveable amidst the lapse of time, and whence when the prisoner comes forth he can reveal nothing, present the tremendous image of eternity, was usually confined the father of a family, perhaps his amiable wife or tender daughter, the exemplary priest, or peaceful scholar; and in the menn time his house was bathed in tears and filled with desolation. Venerable matrons and timid damsels, have been hurried from their homes, and, ignorant of the cause of their misfortune, have awakened from the phrenzy of the brain, and found themselves here alone and helpless in a solitary cell. Here the manly youth, torn from his bewailing kindred, and often wrested from ties still inore endearing, pines amid damp seclusion and chill despair, and vainly invokes the names of objects which so lately thrilled him with pleasure. The dripping vaults re-echo the sighs of the aged father, no longer encircled by the fond endearments of a numerous progeny; all, in short, are condemned to drag existende

amidst a death-like silence, and, as it were, immured from the sight of their weeping relatives,

• Such are the afflicted inhabitants of the awful cells of the Inquisition, awaiting the tardy but inexorable sentence that is to decide their fate. Haply some may escape ; again they may behold the light of day; perhaps innocence may triumph over rancour, malice, and fanaticism; but where are they to look for redress for what they have suffered, when even the privilege of complaining is denied them? What a train of melancholy ideas rush to the imagination of him who contemplates the secrets of the loquisition, and fathoms the malice of which it is capable! What sensible man, to speak without disguise, and it is certainly time now to be candid, can fail to impute all kinds of disorders to an institution of this nature, notwithstanding its artifices to hide them from the eye of the public and the research of the historian,' Vol, I. pp. 191–193.

The examination of the mhappy persons whom the Inquisition has immured in its horrid dungeons, is conducted with every refinement of iniquity. Every artifice is employed against them. Oaths are administered to them, by which they are strictly enjoined to make the most particular disclosures. They are cajoled by promises, they are terrified by threatenings. Their judges, intent on their condemnation, rather than solicitous for their deliverance, discard every principle of equity from the rules of their proceedings, which present a finished picture of the perversion of justice, and the combination of fraud and cruelty.

Scarcely recovered from the surprise caused by his arrest, and appalled by the contrast his imagination forms of the many and secret steps previously taken, compared with the state of security in which he lately lived, from that moment the prisoner begins to despair, and, hopeless and dismayed, he already beholds the torment that awaits him. Bewildered, as in the mazes of a labyrinth, wherever he turns his eyes some fresh object increases his pain, and adds to his anguish. Under the undoubted supposition that, iu this abode of wretchedness, the appearances of the most officious charity conceal acts of insidious cruelty, he beholds no one who is not an enemy, and hears nothing that is not directed to his ruin.'

p. 206. Judicial proceedlings never can be conducted in a manner favourable to the good of society, or fair towards the accused, unless the witnesses who depose against a prisoner, are con fronted with him. In the Inquisition, the prisoner vever koows who is his accuser, nor who are the witnesses that appear against him ; tbe utmost precaution is taken to keep him profoundly ignorant of these. In cases where doubt exists as to the identity of the prisoner's person, the witnesses view him from a secret place where they cannot be seen ; or else they are brought before hiw with masks on their faces, and covered with cloaks from head to foot. Cap any situation, the Author remarks, "be imagined more like that of our Redeemer in the house of Caiapbas, when his executiopers, after binding his eyes, struck, • avd then told him to guess who gave the blow, than the con. dition of an innocent man standing before the tribunal of the • Inquisition ?

When the primitive martyrs bad trial of cruel mocking and scourging, and breathed out their souls into the hands of God aunid agonies and flames, they felt the pains inflicted by persecutors who were filled withirage and malice against the Christian faith, and who sought by these means its utter extirpation. The only relation wbich Christians can sustain in respect of persecution, is, to be the suffering party. Christians can weither pray for fire from beaven to consume their adversaries, por take the sword to smite them. The Inquisition is a perfect contrast to all that is Christian. What a document is the following 'sentence of the torture' to which the signatures of persons described as Christian bishops must be affixed !

" " Christi nomine invocalo. We hereby ordain, after due examination made of the proceedings of said trial, as well as of the inferences and suspicions which ihence result against the said N., that we ought and hereby do condemn him to be interrogated under the torture," (some judges here expressed the kind it was to be) “ on which we command that he be placed, and thereon remain for such time as to us may appear fit, in order that he may declare the truth of what is attested and alleged against him, under the protest we now make against him; that if during the said torture he should die, should be maimed, or any effusion of blood or mutilation of members should thence ensue, the blaine and charge thereof shall rest on himself, and not on us, for having refused to confess the truth. And by this our sentence we decree and command the same to be done, by virtue of, and in conformity to, the tenor of these presents.

What impiety, wliat blasphemy is here-the invocation of Christ's name prefixed to a deed sanctioning torture and palliating murder!

• Three kinds of torture have been generally used by the Inquisition, víz. the pulley, rack, and fire. As sad and loud lamentations accompanied the sharpness of pain, the victim was conducted to a retired apartment, called the fall of Torture, and usually situated under ground, in order that his cries might not interrupt the silence which reigned throughout the other parts of the building. Here the court assembled, and the judges being seated, together with their secretary, again questioned the prisoner respecting his crime, which if he still persisted to deny, they proceeded to the execution of the sentence.

• This first torture was performed by fixing a pulley to the roof of the hall, with a strong lempen or grass rope passed through it. The executioners then seized the culprit, and leaving him naked to his drawers, put shackles on bis feet, and suspended weights of 100 pounds to his ancles. His hands were then bound behind his back, and the rope from the pulley strongly fastened to his wrists. In this

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situation he was raised about the height of a man from the ground, and in the mean time the judges coldly admonished him to tell the truth In this position as far as twelve stripes were sometimes inflicted on him according to the inferences and weight of the offence. He was then suffered to fill suddenly, but in such manner that noither liis feet nor the weights reached the ground, in order to render che shock of his body the greater.

· The torture of the rack, also called that of water and ropes, and the one most commonly used, was inflicted by stretching the victim, naked as before, on his back along a wooden horse or hollow bench with sticks across like a ladder, and prepared for the purpose. To this his feet, hands, and head were strongly bound, in sucli manner as to leave him no room to move. In this attitude he experienced eight strong contortions in his limbs, viz two on the fleshy parts of the arm above the elbow, and two below, one on each thigh, and also on the legs. He was besides obliged to swallow seven pints of water, slowly d:opped into his mouth on a piece of silk or ribbon which, by the pressure of the water, glided down his throat, so as to produce all the horrid sensations of a person who is drowning. At other times his face was covered with a thin piece of linen, through which the water ran into his mouth and 'nostrils, and prevented him from breathing. Of such a form did the Inquisition of Valladolid make use, in 1528, towards Licentiate Juan Salas, physician of that city.

• For the torture by fire the prisoner was placed with his legs naked in the stocks, the soles of his feet were then well greased with lard, and a blazing chafing-dish applied to them, by the heat of which they became perfectly fried. When his complaints of the pain were loudest, a board was placed between his feet and the fire, and he was again commanded to confess; but this was taken away if he persisted in his obstinacy. This species of torture was deemed the most cruel of all; but this as well as the others, were indifferently applied to persons of both sexes, at the will of the judges, according to the circumstances of the crime, and the strength of the delin. quent.' Vol. I.


250-254. Over these processes of refined and overwhelming cruelty, preside men who assume to be the servants of Christ, aud the ministers of the God of peace and love! The gratifications of their minds in discharging the business of an offica instituted for the declared purpose of aiding the Christian faith, are found in surveying the writhing meinbers and the convulsed frames of their fellow-creatures, fastened to engines of torinent, and hearing the piercing and horrid cries of the unhappy wretches in the paroxysms of their distracted agonies ! By what strange descents and awful prostitution the profession of the Christian ministry, originally intended to establish 'peace on earth, good

will to men,' sliould be found connected witii tlie office of Vexing and destroying mankind by excraciating tortures and violent death, is an inquiry which merits the most serious con

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